1844 Black Map of Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Peru
Description: A fine example of Adam and Charles Black's 1844 map of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil and British Guyana. This map depicts Gran Colombia or Great Colombia, which included territories of modern day Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Panama, and part of northern Brazil, Peru and Guyana. It covers from Panama to Bolivia and east as far as British Guyana. Bolivia's claims to the Atacama Desert and Peru's claims to the Tarapaca region - both of which are today part of Chile, are shown. Throughout, the map identifies various cities, towns, rivers, mountain passes and an assortment of additional topographical details.
Envisioning an independent New World nation comprising all of the territories under the Spanish and Portuguese colonial rule, the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda suggested a consolidated South American empire named after Christopher Columbus. The idea took hold and in 1819 the territories known as the ‘Viceroyalty of New Granada’ (comprising of modern day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela), became the first South American region to liberate itself from Spain. The region was renamed ‘Gran Colombia’. The war against Spain ended in the mid-1820s when the pro-Spanish loyalists were decisively crushed. The congress of Cucuta adopted a constitution for the new republic in 1821. The vision of Gran Columbia, unfortunately, proved untenable and both Venezuela and Ecuador split off to become independent states 1829 and 1830, respectively.
The map is engraved by S. Hall and issued as plate no. LII in the 1844 edition of Black's General Atlas.
Date: 1844 (undated)
Source: Black, A. and C., Black's General Atlas (Edinburgh), 1844. Black's General Atlas was a popular Scottish atlas of the world issued by the Edinburgh firm of Adam and Charles Black. This atlas was first issued in 1840 with subsequent editions being printed well into the 1890s. While most editions were printed in Edinburgh, an American edition was issued in 1857. Most early editions of his atlas were engraved by S. Hall. Typically this refers to Sidney Hall, who died in 1831, but in this case, since the engraving was initiated well after his death, it was most likely his widow, Selina Hall, who did the engraving. Later editions feature additional maps updated and engraved by William Hughes. Early editions featured outline color only, but later editions embraced a full color approach with pale green, yellow, and blue pastels. All editions are known for their meticulous presentation of the most up-to-date cartographic information. Moreover, this exceptionally long publication run provides a fine cartographic record of the middle to late 19th century - particularly as regards the complex cartographic evolution of the Americas through this period.
References: Rumsey 2305.062 (1854 edition). Philips (atlases) 4334.
Cartographer: Charles and his uncle Adam Black of Edinburgh, Scotland, founded their publishing firm in 1807. They published a series of maps and atlases throughout the 19th century. In addition to an array of atlases, the Black firm is known for their editions of the Encyclopedia Britannica (1817 - 1826) and the first publishing of Sir Walter Scott's novels in 1854. In 1889 the A. & C. Black publishing house moved to London where it remains in operation to this day. Click here for a list of rare maps by Charles & Adam Black.
Cartographer: Sidney Hall (1788 - 1831) was an English engraver and map publisher active in London during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. His earliest imprints, dating to about 1814, suggest a partnership with Michael Thomson, another prominent English map engraver. Hall engraved for most of the prominent London map publishers of his day, including Aaron Arrowsmith, William Faden, William Harwood, and John Thomson, among others. Hall is credited as being one of the earliest adopters of steel plate engraving, a technique that allowed for finer detail and larger print runs due to the exceptional hardness of the medium. Upon his early death - he was only in his 40s - Hall's business was inherited by his wife, Selina Hall, who continued to publish under the imprint, "S. Hall", presumably for continuity. The business eventually passed to Sidney and Selina's nephew Edward Weller, who became extremely prominent in his own right. Click here for a list of rare maps by Sidney Hall.
Size: Printed area measures 11 x 15.5 inches (27.94 x 39.37 centimeters)
Scale: 1 : 9950000
Condition: Very good. Original platemark visible. Blank on verso.
Code: ColombiaPeru-black-1844 (to order by phone call: 646-483-0487)
Tags: Black , Hall