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1607 Mercator - Hondius Thematic Map of the World Showing Religions


Designatio Orbis Christiani.
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Title:    Designatio Orbis Christiani.

Description:    One of the earliest known thematic maps, this is a fine example of the 1607 Mercator- Hondius map of the World showing different religions.  The world is presented on a hemispherical projection with Europe and Africa at center.  Various symbols are sued to identify different religious groups including Christians (cross), Muslims (crescent), and idolaters (arrow).  These reference a table in the lower right quadrant that provides references and additional detail.   Cartographically this map follows the model associated with the ephemeral period between the navigations of Magellan and Drake, when it was believed that Tierra del Fuego was in fact attached to a massive Southern Continent.  Drake's voyages of 1577 to 1580 proved definitively that this was not the case, but some European cartographers were slow to update their maps - the present offering being one such example.  Other elements of cartographic interested include a misaligned Caspian Sea, an insular presentation of Korea, and a limited portrait of southern Java. Hondius prepared this as one of two world maps presented in the 1607 Latin first edition of the Atlas Minor, one of the better small format atlases to appear in the early 17th century.  Plates for this were later sold to London booksellers who used them to illustrate some editions of Purchas His Pilgrimage.

Date:    1607 (undated)

Source:    Mercator, G.,Atlas Minor (Amsterdam), 1607. Latin edition.    

References:    Shirley, Rodney W., The Mapping of the World:  Early Printed World Maps 1472-1700, no. 260.

Cartographer:    Gerard Mercator (1512 - 1594) is a seminal figure in the history of cartography. Mercator's calculations and map designs redefined the 16th century concept of cartography and were the first to break away from the Ptolemy model. Many of his systems of measurement, such as the Mercator Projection, are still in use today. Despite his prominence as a cartographer, he started his career as a crafter of scientific instruments. He did not construct his first map until 1540, when he made two maps, one of Flanders and another of Palestine. These two impressive works earned him the patronage of the Emperor Charles V, for whom he construed a globe and several large scale maps. Despite this imperial patronage, Mercator was accused of heresy and in 1552 fled to Duisburg. In Duisburg he set himself up as a cartographer and began work on his revised edition of Ptolemy's Geographia. This three volume work was the first book to be called an "Atlas", after the Titan and King of Mauritania. Following Mercator's death his descendants took over his firm but languished because of heavy competition from the Ortelius firm. It was not until Mercator's plates were purchased and republished ( Mercator / Hondius ) by Henricus Hondius and Jan Jansson that Mercator's position as the preeminent cartographer of the age was re-established. Click here for a list of rare maps from Gerard Mercator.

Cartographer:    Jodocus Hondius (October, 14 1563 - February 12, 1612) was an important Dutch cartographer active in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. His common name, Jodocus Hondius is actually a Latinized version of his Dutch name, Joost de Hondt. He is also sometimes referred to as Jodocus Hondius the Elder to distinguish him from his sons. Hondius was a Flemish artist, engraver, and cartographer. He is best known for his early maps of the New World and Europe, for re-establishing the reputation of the work of Gerard Mercator, and for his portraits of Francis Drake. Hondius was born and raised in Ghent. In his early years he established himself as an engraver, instrument maker and globe maker. In 1584 he moved to London to escape religious difficulties in Flanders. During his stay in England, Hondius was instrumental in publicizing the work of Francis Drake, who had made a circumnavigation of the world in the late 1570s. In particular, in 1589 Hondius produced a now famous map of the cove of New Albion, where Drake briefly established a settlement on the west coast of North America. Hondius' map was based on journal and eyewitness accounts of the trip and has long fueled speculation about the precise location of Drake's landing, which has not yet been firmly established by historians. Hondius is also thought to be the artist of several well-known portraits of Drake that are now in the National Portrait Gallery in London. In 1593 Hondius returned to Amsterdam, where he remained until the end of his life. In 1604 he purchased the plates of Gerard Mercator's Atlas from Mercator's grandson. Mercator's work had languished in comparison to the rival atlas, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum by Ortelius. Hondius republished Mercator's work with 36 additional maps, including several which he himself produced. Despite the addition of his own contributions, Hondius recognizing the prestige of Mercator's name, gave Mercator full credit as the author of the work, listing himself as the publisher. Hondius' new edition of Mercator's revived the great cartographer's reputation was a great success, selling out after a year. Hondius later published a second edition, as well as a pocket version called the Atlas Minor. The maps have since become known as the "Mercator/Hondius series". Between 1605 and 1610 Hondius was employed by John Speed to engrave the plates for Speed's The Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine. Following Hondius' death in 1612, his publishing work in Amsterdam was continued by his widow and two sons, Jodocus II and Henricus. Later his family formed a partnership with Jan Jansson, whose name appears on the Atlas as co-publisher after 1633. Eventually, starting with the first 1606 edition in Latin, about 50 editions of the Atlas were released in the main European languages. In the Islamic world, the atlas was partially translated by the Turkish scholar Katip Çelebi. The series is sometimes called the "Mercator/Hondius/Jansson" series because of Jansson's later contributions. Hondius' is also credited wth a number of important cartographic innovations including the introduction of decorative map border and the evolution of the 17th centruy Dutch wall map. The work of Hondius was essential to the establishment Amsterdam as the center of cartography in Europe in the 17th century. Click here for a list of rare maps by Hondius.

Size:   Printed area measures 8 x 7 inches (20.32 x 17.78 centimeters)

Scale:    1 : 110000000

Condition:    Very good. Original platemark visible. Text on verso.

Code:   World-hondius-1607 (to order by phone call: 646-483-0487)

Tags:    Thematic Map , Mercator , Hondius , Atlas Minor , Tierra del Fuego , Sir Francis Drake

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