Emma Calderini (February 13, 1899 - March 5, 1975) was an Italian costume designer and historian of folk costume. He is also known for his participation in numerous theatrical productions and collaboration with cinema and television productions and numerous women's magazines. Calderini studied at the Scuola Normale di Ravenna and at the Academy of Fine Arts in Ravenna. He began his career at age twenty, when he finished his first work for Grazia, Mood, and Lidel. In 1922, Calderini moved to Milan and continued to expand his business by working with more fashion magazines. In 1925, Calderini began his career as a costume designer, working on several productions for the Agrigento theater. Calderini published his most famous work Il Costume Popolare in Italia in 1935. In publishing this work, Calderini garnered enough attention that he was given the task of reorganizing the Ethnographic Museum of Villa d'Este in Tivoli. During World War II, Calderini worked on a handful of films and after the war helped to found several new theatrical companies. In 1951 he was a consultant for costumes at the Center of Arts and Costume at Palazzo Grassi in Venice.