James Barton Longacre (August 11, 1794 - January 1, 1869) was an American portraitist and engraver. He was born on a farm in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, the descendent of the early Swedish settler to that region. At 12, Longacre moved to Philadelphia, apprenticing himself at John E. Watson's bookstore. He was nonetheless more inclined towards the arts, and so in 1813, he transferred his apprenticeship to George Murray, principal in the engraving firm Murray, Draper, Fairman and Co. at 47 Sansom Street, Philadelphia. He started his own engraving business in 1819 at 230 Pine Street - his first project being John Binns' spectacular 'Declaration of Independence' broadside where he engraved portraits of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and John Hancock. Although regarded as the 'finest engraver in the United States', his business lagged during the Panic 1837, and he was forced into insolvency. For a time he traveled the Midwest as an itinerant bookseller, but in 1844, returned to Philadelphia where he became the 4th chief engraver of the Philadelphia Mint. There he made his mark as the designer of both the Flying Eagle Cent and the Indian Head Cent. He left the position of Chief Engraver in 1851, but remained active designing coinage for the rest of his career. He died suddenly at his home in Philadelphia on January 1, 1869.