Melchisédech Thévenot (c. 1620 – 1692) was a French author, scientist, traveler, cartographer, orientalist, inventor, and diplomat. Born to a noble family, he had an ample education: he commanded a broad array of languages including Turkish and Arabic. His connections won him position and honor: in 1684 he became Royal Librarian to King Louis XIV of France, having served as ambassador to Genoa in 1647 and then to Rome in the 1650s. Thévenot's 1663 Relations de Divers Voyages Curieux compliled an array of important maps, such as Joliet's mapping of the Mississippi and Tasman's chart of Australia. In it were also an array of depictions of the Middle East, in particular some of the earliest detailed maps of southern Iraq. He became the patron of many scientists, being an amateur in the field himself. Thevenot was also the inventor of the bubble level, and wrote the foundational 1696 text on the art of swimming.

Thévenot is often confused with his nephew, the traveller Jean de Thévenot.