Harold John Couchman (July 29, 1882 - November 30, 1956) was a British surveyor and soldier who became Surveyor of India. Born in Haileybury, he attended school in Haileybury before entering the Royal Military Academy. Commissioned in the Royal Engineers in August 1900, Couchman was transferred to India in 1902. In 1906 he became part of the geodetic branch of the Survey of India. Initially assigned to assist with fieldwork, by the 1908-09 field season Couchman oversaw operations in southwest India. In 1910-11 he took part in the regional gravity surveys of Burma and then in 1912-14 in southern and central India. He was transferred to the headquarters office of the Survey of India in the spring of 1914. During World War I, he served in France and Belgium from September 1915 until November 1918. In 1919 he returned to the Survey of India and spent the rest of his career with the Survey, except for three years (1926 - 1929) when he served as deputy master, security printing. Over the course of these years, he served as director in Shillong, Simla, and Calcutta, and, in 1933, was appointed Surveyor General. He held that position until he retired in 1937. He rose to the rank of brigadier in 1933 and was knighted in 1937. He married Evelyn Beatrice in 1925 and they had no children.