Charles Alexandre Lesueur (January 1, 1778 - December 12, 1846) was a French naturalist, artist, and explorer active in the early 19th century. In 1801 Lesueur signed on as a gunner in the Napoleon sponsored expedition of Nicolas Baudin. Early in the voyage Lesueur was recognized as a fine artist and keen observer and, after the death of the expedition's zoologist Rene Mauge, he was promoted to 'assistant naturalist' under Francois Peron. Most of the important sketches surviving from the Baudin expedition are the work of Lesueur. Cartographically he is known for two important plans of Sydney, Australia, among the first made. Following the expedition he relocated to New Harmony, Indiana, United States where he lived from 1815 to 1833. He was in New Harmony when Prince Maximilian, Prince of Wied-Neuweid, Germany, and artist Karl Bodmer came to spend five months there in 1832–1833. Prince Maximilian said of Lesueur "He had explored the country in many directions, was acquainted with everything remarkable, collected and prepared all interesting objects and had already sent considerable collections to France" (Elliott & Johansen, p. 6). In 1837 Lesueur returned to his home town of La Harve, France, where he was appointed curator of the Musee d'Histoire Naturelle du Havre. There he died in 1846.

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