Nakladatelství Melantrich (1897 - 1999) was a large Czech publishing house active in Prague throughout the 20th century. Melantrich, original called, Nihtiskárna národně sociálního dělnictva (Printing press of national socialist workers) was established as a press front for the Czech National Social Party (no relation to German National Socialism) in 1897. In 1907, under Jaroslav Šalda (1880–1965), the publishing firm began publishing the daily newspaper České slovo (The Czech Word). The paper proved popular and led to a period of expansion for the paper. Around this time they also adopted the name Melantrich, after the renaissance painter Jiří Melantrich of Aventino (1511-1580). In 1924 the firm expanded again and was reorganized as a joint stock company. The influx of capital enabled Melantrich to acquire several competing presses and expand to other cities. Under Šalda the publishing house continued to grow becoming the largest publisher in the First Republic of Czechoslovakia. Šalda was imprisoned during the Nazi Occupation (1938–1945) and the paper fell under the control of Nazi collaborators. When the Communists took over the country in 1948 Šalda was removed, the company nationalized, and split into three parts. In 1950 the publishing house changed its name to Svobodné slovo-Melantrich, in 1960 to Svobodné slovo and again in 1967 back to Melantrich. It was acquired by Chemapol in 1996. Chemapol itself filed for bankruptcy in 1998. Unable to compete, they ceased operations in 1999.

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