Victor Martin de Moussy (June 26, 1810 - March 26, 1869) was a French physician and author. In 1841 he emigrated to Rio de Janeiro, resettling to Montevideo in 1842, where he became successful in his vocation. He became rich enough to quit medicine, and became a patron of the sciences - he founded an astronomical observatory, which he donated to the city. For ten years the observatory operated with good results.

The 1846 siege of Montevideo by Rosas and Oribe led him to encourage the foundation of a foreign national guard: one French and the other Italian (and everyone else.) Martin served as physician of both legions, which mainly provided civil order during the war. The legions were dissolved with the 1852 peace. Following the war, Martin explored the Rio de la Plata on behalf of the Argentine government travelling from 1855 to 1858 surveying that river as well as the Uruguay, and Paraguay rivers. Ill health would send him back to France in 1859, where he would publish accounts of his travels, in particular his ten volume 'Description geographique et statistique de la confederation Argentine.'