Joseph Shields Wilson (c. 1806 - June 23, 1874) was an Irish-American immigrant who held positions in the U.S. Department of the Treasury and the U.S. Department of the Interior. Born in Ireland, Wilson immigrated to the United States as a child and settled in Washington, D.C. He took a job as a messenger in the Department of the Treasury and was eventually promoted to a position as a Clerck. When the Department of the Interior was organized in 1849, Wilson was appointed Chief Clerk of the General Land Office. He served as the Commissioner of the General Land Office from 1860 to 1861 and again from 1866 to 1871. Wilson died in Washington, D.C. on June 23, 1874.