U.S. Information Agency (U.S.I.A.; 1953 – 1999), in its early years also known as United States Information Service (USIS) within the various embassies of the U.S. abroad, was a product of the Cold War dedicated to 'public diplomacy,' often but not exclusively anti-Communist propaganda in foreign languages targeted at the local population. It was preceded by the Office of the Coordinator of Information, created in 1941, which housed Voice of America (VOA) founded the following year. USAI was part of a massive information war effort to counter Communist and anti-American propaganda, especially in the Third World. The agency also produced information for the domestic audience, trumpeting the good work being done by U.S. entities and interests abroad. It also conducted public opinion polls throughout the world and produced twice-daily reports on foreign media for delivery to the President. Often collaborating with the State Department and Voice of America, USIA was instructed not to be overly transparent but to use subtle methods and messages to develop a positive image of the U.S. abroad. The agency was dissolved and placed within the State Department in 1999 as the office of Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs.