Chinese Empire and Japan.
1835 (dated) 11 x 14 in (27.94 x 35.56 cm)
1 : 15840000
This is a beautiful 1835 first edition map of China and Japan by David H. Burr. It covers China from Little Tibet to include all of Japan. Macao is identified. The Great Wall of China is clearly rendered. The disputed body of water between Korea and Japan is here identified as the Sea of Japan.
Burr’s map reveals China just prior to the First Opium War. In the early 19th century Asia was increasingly coming under imperial European sway. By the 1830s, oversaturation of the Chinese market slackened Chinese demand for most British products. T o make up for the trade deficit, British merchants introduced Indian opium to China. Addictive and cheap, Opium became Britain's most profitable and important crop in world markets, pouring into China faster than tea poured into Britain. Opium addiction and its attendant social ills reached such catastrophic levels that the Chinese government took action and destroyed British opium stores in Canton. As this threatened English commercial interests, the crown responded, sparking the Opium Wars of 1839-1842. The superior British forces took complete control of Canton, occupied Shanghai, and blockaded Chinese ports, forcing the Chinese to sign the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. This unequal treaty (the first of many between European powers and China) would grant Britain extensive trading rights in China.
According to Ristow, although Burr is credited on the title page, he left this atlas incomplete. He was appointed as topographer to the U.S. Post Office, and of the sixty-three maps finally included in this atlas, only completed eight. The rest of the maps were then completed by Illman and Pilbrow in Burr's style. This map was ‘Entered according to act of Congress in the year 1835 by Thomas Illman in the Clerk’s office of the District Court for the Southern District of New York’. Published by D. S. Stone in Burr’s New Universal Atlas.
David H. Burr (1803-1875) of one of the first and most important truly American cartographers and map publishers. Burr was born in Bridgeport Connecticut in August of 1803. In 1822 Burr moved to Kingsboro, New York to study law. A year and a half later he was admitted to the New York Bar association. Burr must have questioned his choice of careers because shortly after being admitted to the Bar, he joined the New York State Militia. Though largely untrained in the art of Surveying, Burr was assigned to work under Surveyor General of New York, Simeon De Witt, to survey several New York Roadways. Seeing a window of opportunity Burr was able to negotiate with the governor of New York at the time, De Witt Clinton, to obtain copies of other New York survey work in order to compile a map and Atlas of the state of New York. Recognizing the need for quality survey work of its territory, the government of New York heartily endorsed and financed Burr's efforts. The resulting 1829 Atlas of the State of New York was the second atlas of an individual U.S. State and one of the most important state atlases ever produced. Burr went on to issue other maps both of New York and of the United States in general. In cooperation with publishing firm of Illman & Pillbrow, he produced an important New Universal Atlas and, with J.H. Colton, several very important maps of New York City. In recognition of this work, Burr was appointed both "Topographer to the Post office" and "Geographer to the House of Representatives of the United States". Later, in 1855, Burr was assigned to the newly created position of Surveyor General to the state of Utah. Burr retired from the position and from cartographic work in general in 1857. (Ristow, W. W., American Maps and Mapmakers; Commercial Cartography in the Nineteenth Century, p. 103 - 108.)
Thomas Illman (fl. c. 1824 – 1858) was an English engraver active in New York city during the early 19th century. Illman was born in England and attened Trinity College in Oxford where he attained a degree in theology. Despite initial religious fervor, he soon became an atheist. Professionally he turned to engraving to support his artistic tendencies. In London he mastered the engraver's art. His first paying work as an artist was illustrating for Thomas Carlyle's Confessions of an English Opium Eater. He relocated to New York City in 1828, almost immediately partnering with Edward Pilbrow to found the firm Illman and Pilbrow. Illman and Pillbrow were almost immediately hired by David H. Burr to engrave maps for his Universal Atlas, which he began working on in that year. When Burr took a position as topographer and cartographer for the United States Post Office, he ceded all remaining work on the Atlas to Illman and Pilbrow. In addition to his atlas work, Illman privately pursued his own art as well as engraved portraits and landscapes. He was admired as a skilled line, stipple, and mezzotint engraver. At some point he may have relocated to Philadelphia. His sons, H. Illman and G. Illman followed in his footsteps founding Illman Sons in 1845
Burr, David H., A New Universal Atlas; Comprising Separate Maps of All the Principal Empires, Kingdoms & States Throughout the World: and forming a distinct Atlas of the United States, (New York: D. S. Stone) 1835 (First Edition).
Burr's New Universal Atlas was first published in 1835. It is one of the first great American commercial atlases and one of the most important to appear before the Civil War. Burr was most likely initially inspired to publish a 'universal atlas' in pursuit a more general audience by the success of his 1829 Atlas of New York State. He began work on the Universal Atlas sometime around 1830. By 1832 he had copyrighted eight new maps for the work. Around this time he accepted a position as topographer and cartographer for the United States Postal Department and was thus unable to finish the atlas personally. Instead, while retaining editing rights and overall ownership, Burr passed much of the production work to his engravers Thomas Illman and Edward Pillbrow. The first edition of the atlas was completed in 1835 and published by D. S. Stone of New York. A second edition, published by William Hall, appeared in the following year, 1836. Both editions featured 63 maps, the first part of the book being dedicated to world maps and the second part to the Americas, particularly the United States. Some of 1836 editions features outline rather than the distinctive full color common in the first edition. The plates for the atlas were later sold to Jeremiah Greenleaf who expanded the atlas to 65 maps and issued editions in 1840, 1842, and 1848.
Very good. Minor foxing. Original platemark visible.
Rumsey 4628.023. Philips (Atlases) 771.