1843 Hall Geological Map of the Central United States

Geological Map of the Middle and Western States.

1843 Hall Geological Map of the Central United States


Considered to be a landmark map in the field of geology, as it was the first to utilize the 'New York System'.


Geological Map of the Middle and Western States.
  1843 (undated)    23.25 x 32.75 in (59.055 x 83.185 cm)     1 : 1810000


This is an 1843 James Hall geological map of the central United States. The map depicts the region from the Mississippi River to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Straits of Michilimackinac (Michillimaoinac) and Montreal, Canada to Virginia, Kentucky, and Missouri. As the first published map to use the 'New York System' of stratigraphic nomenclature, developed by Hall and other members of the New York Geological Survey, Hall's map is considered a landmark map in geological cartography. Rivers, lakes, and other physical features are also illustrated, with four of the five Great Lakes situated along the top.
'The New York System' of Geology
The 'New York System' focused on the importance of using paleontology to delineate geological layers. Here, twenty-three different geological layers and formations are illustrated using various colors to indicate where each layer or formation lies.

This map was created by James Hall, engraved by Endicott and Company of New York, and published in Hall's Geology of New York. Part IV. Comprising the Survey of the Fourth Geological District. in 1843.


James Hall (September 12, 1811 - August 7, 1898) was an American paleontologist and geologist. Born in Hingham, Massachusetts, Hall was the oldest of four children born to James Hall Sr. and Sousanna Dourdain Hall, who had emigrated from England two years earlier. Hall attended the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, from which he graduated with honors in 1832 and he received a master's degree from the same institution the following year. After completing his master's degree, Hall stayed at Rensselaer and taught chemistry and later geology. In 1836, Hall was appointed to the team working on a geological and natural history of New York. That first year he was assigned as Ebenezer Emmons's assistant, for who he studied iron deposits in the Adirondack Mountains. The following year, after the survey was reorganized, Hall was put in charge of the Fourth District, in western New York. After completing the survey in 1841, Hall was named the first state paleontologist of New York. Hall published the findings of the survey in 1843 as Geology of New York Part IV. This work received much acclaim and became a classic in the field. Thanks to this success, Hall had established a solid reputation and spent the rest of his life studying stratigraphic geology and invertebrate paleontology. Hall constructed a laboratory in Albany, New York, which quickly became an important institution for aspiring geologists and paleontologists to study and train. Today, this laboratory is known as the James Hall Office and was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1976. Following the survey of New York, Hall participated in a geological survey of northern Michigan and Wisconsin in 1850, and served as state geologist for Iowa from 1855 until 1858 and for Wisconsin from 1857 until 1860. In 1866, Hall was appointed the director of the New York State Museum of Natural History in Albany, and was appointed State Geologist of New York in 1893. Hall was a founding member of the National Academy of Sciences and served as the first president of the Geological Society of America. In 1838, Hall married Sarah Aikin, with whom he had two daughters and two sons. Sarah passed away in 1895.

Endicott and Company (fl. c. 1828 - 1891) was a New York based family run lithography firm that flourished throughout the 19th century. The firm was founded by George and William Endicott, brothers who were born in Canton, Massachusetts. George Endicott (June 14, 1802 - 1848) trained as a lithographer under Pendleton Lithography from January of 1826. He later worked as superintendent of Senefelder Company until the summer of 1828. Afterwards, in 1830, he relocated to Baltimore and partnered with Moses Swett. Endicott and Swett relocated to New York City in December of 1831. They remained partners until July of 1834 when the relationship dissolved. George set up shop on his own account at 359 Broadway. William Endicott (1815 - 1851), George's younger brother of 14 years, joined the firm in 1840 and was made a partner in 1845, after which the name of the firm was changed to G. and W. Endicott. George Endicott died shortly afterward, in 1848, but William continued operating the firm as William Endicott and Co. until his own 1851 death at just 35 years. The firm was carried on by his widow Sara Munroe Endicott until it was taken over by her son, Francis Endicott, who ran the firm from 1852 to 1886. George Endicott, Jr. subsequently ran the firm from 1887 to 1891. Peters, in his important work on American lithography America on Stone writes "it is hard to summarize the Endicotts. They did everything and did it well . . . [they] worked with and for Currier and Ives, yet in spite of all that much of their work lacks real individuality." The Endicott firm was responsible for many 19th century views and plans of New York City and state as well as plans of Sacramento, California, and the Midwest.


Hall, J., Geology of New York. Part IV. Comprising the Survey of the Fourth Geological District. (Carroll and Cook: Albany) 1843.    


Very good. Even overall toning. Light wear along original fold lines. Blank on verso.


OCLC 773765701.
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