Polen bis zu seinem Untergange 1795.
1855 (dated) 14 x 17 in (35.56 x 43.18 cm)
This is Karl von Spruner's 1854 historical map of Poland from the first Partition of Poland in 1772, through the Second and Third Partitions, to the dissolution of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795. The map coves Poland from Livonia to Moldavia and shows parts of neighboring Russia and Germany. The map details the critical year of 1795, when the Third (and last) Partition of Poland permanently dissolved the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Following the First and the Second Partitions of Poland, which were influenced by rise of the Russian empire, increasing unrest in the remaining commonwealth provinces led Polish nationalist demands for reunification. The only way to resolve this issue, as seen by the partitioning powers, was to eliminate entirely the independent Polish state. In 1775, in the Third Partition, the remaining territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth were divided between Russia, Prussia and Austria. The whole is rendered in finely engraved detail exhibiting throughout the fine craftsmanship of the Perthes firm. Prepared by Karl Spruner for publication as plate N VI in the second edition of Justus Perthes' 1854 Historich-Geographischer, Hand-Atlas zur Geschichte der Staaten europa's vom Anfang des Mittelalters bis auf die Neueste Zeit.
Karl von Spruner (November 15, 1803 - August 24, 1892) or Spruner Karl von Merz or Spruneri was a Stuttgart born cartographer, scientist, and map publisher active in Germany during the middle part of the 19th century. Joining the Bavarian army at the tender age of 11, Spruner dedicated most of his life to military service. Spruner's superiors, recognizing his keen intellect, eventually assigned him to the army's cartographic division. Military education earned him the title of Doctor of Cartography in 1852. In 1855 he attained the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel and, in 1883, General. Cartographically, Spruner is best known for his historical atlases, most of which were published by the Justus Perthes firm. His much admired maps studiously applied historical political geographies to contemporary physical geographies. Spruner also worked with Heinrich Theodore Menke, a well-known German mapmaker, to produce and later revise his many historical maps. In 1886, after 72 years of professional military service, Spruner formally retired. He died seven years later in Munich in on August 24th of 1892.
Justus Perthes (1749 - 1812) was one of the most important German cartographic engravers of the 19th century. Perthes began his publishing empire with the 1784 issue of the famed survey of European nobility known as the Almanac de Gotha. In 1817 Perthes switched his focus to cartographic publishing. From 1817 to 1890 the Perthes firm would issue thousands of maps for more than 20 different atlases. Along with the visionary editors Stieler, Peterman, Meyer and Spruner, the Perthes firm pioneered the Hand Atlas. He also produced a number of important wall maps and case maps. Perthes maps are admired for their steel plate engraving, incredible detail, dedication to accuracy, and fine colorization. The Justus Perthes firm continues to produce maps and atlases to this day.
Spruner, Karl, Historich-Geographischer, Hand-Atlas zur Geschichte der Staaten Europa's vom Anfang des Mittelalters bis auf die Neueste Zeit, 1854.
Very good. Blank on verso. Original centerfold. Original platemark visible.
Rumsey 2600.045. OCLC 4125021.