Called the Jackson Plan or Raffles Plan, this is the first published map of Singapore. Published in 1828, the map was drawn by Lieutenant Philip Jackson at the request of Singapore founder Sir Stamford Raffles. The map is divided into two sections, a map of the island of Singapore, and a close up of the town of Singapore. The city plan presents an idealized version of Singapore following the Raffles vision and, while not fully implemented, was influential in the early development of the colony.
Stamford Raffles founded Singapore as a British colony in 1819 and promptly returned to England, leaving William Farquhar to manage the colony. From the beginning, Singapore witnessed rapid growth and a high volume as a port. With limited funds, Farquhar could not fully control the urban development of Singapore town and allowed for haphazard organic growth. When Raffles returned in October of 1822, he was displeased by the chaotic development of the city and commissioned Lieutenant Philip Jackson, who himself had just arrived in Singapore, to create a new development plan outlining his ambitious urban vision.
The Raffles Vision
Raffles' plan for Singapore called for structured centrally planned development with racial and social segregation. He created a Town Committee to layout Singapore along six points:
- The area between the Old Lines (a ruined city wall roughly where Stamford Road now lies) and the Singapore River including a space up to 200 yards east of the Old Lines (i.e. up to where Bras Basah Road is now located) would be reserved as a cantonment for government use.
- The European area would be located to the east of the cantonment (the government area) as far as the ground that belonged to the Sultan. The area of the cantonment facing the sea and area southwest of the river between Circular Road and Telok Ayer Bay would be used for commerce.
- Raffles expected that the Chinese would constitute the largest community, and so reserved a large area south west of the Singapore River. Indians would be settled further up the river.
- The Bugis (who had already settled in Kampong Glam) and Arabs were to be allocated areas next to the Sultan's ground. Raffles did not believe that there would be significant Malay settlers, but thought they may settle the upper banks of the river.
- The sea front and port was to be reserved for public use.
- In addition to allocating land, Raffles also located the Telok Ayer Market, stipulated that that burial grounds be placed far from the town, and required urban uniformity.
Jackson incorporated all of Raffles' suggestions on this map. Although not exactly considered a master plan for the development of Singapore, Jackson's map had a strong influence on subsequent settlement and development of the colonial town.
Census and Publication History
The map was drawn in late 1822 or early 1823, but was not printed until John Crawfurd included it in the 1828 publication of his Journal of an Embassy from the Governor-General of India to the courts of Siam and Cochin-China: exhibiting a view of the actual state of those kingdoms
. The plan was engraved in London by the firm of J. and C. Walker and was published by Henry Colburn. The map was included in all editions of Crawfurd's work, but is rarely found separately and is scarce to the market. The OCLC cites 3 separate examples at the British Library, the National Library Board of Singapore, and the BNF.
Philip Jackson (September 24, 1802 - 1879) was a British naval officer, surveyor, and engineer active in the early settlement and planning of Singapore. Jackson was born in Durham and joined the East India Company army at 16. He traveled to India with the Bengal Artillery Regiment and was subsequently posted to Singapore in January of 1822. Leveraging Jacksons experience as a surveyor and engineer, Singapore founder Stamford Raffles appointed him Assistant Engineer on October 29 of 1922. Jackson was tasked with realizing Raffles vision for the design and layout of Singapore and is credited with the first map of Singapore, published in 1828. Jackson was appointed surveyor of Singapore's public lands in February of 1826. Learn More...
John Walker (1787 - April 19, 1873) was a British map seller, engraver, lithographer, hydrographer, geographer, draughtsman and publisher active in London during the 19th century. Walker published both nautical charts and geographical maps. His nautical work is particular distinguished as he was an official hydrographer for the British East India Company, a position, incidentally, also held by his father of the same name. Walker's maps mostly published after 1827, were primarily produced in partnership with his brothers Charles Walker and Alexander Walker under the imprint J. and C. Walker. Among their joint projects are more than 200 maps for the influential Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge Atlas (SDUK). In addition they published numerous charts for James Horsburgh and the British Admiralty Hydrographic Office, including Belcher's important map of Hong Kong and Carless' exploratory map of Karachi. The J. and C. Walker firm continued to publish after both Walkers died in the 1870s. Learn More...
Crawfurd, J., Journal of an Embassy from the Governor-General of India to the courts of Siam and Cochin-China: exhibiting a view of the actual state of those kingdoms, (London: H. Colburn), 1828.
Very good. Backed on archival tissue. Slight wear on original fold lines. Closed margin tear professionally repaired on verso. Blank on verso.
OCLC 557484724. Bonny Tan. 'Raffles Town Plan (Jackson Plan)', Singapore Infopedia. H. F. Pearson (July 1969). 'Lt. Jackson's Plan of Singapore'. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 42 (1 (215) Singapore 150th Anniversary Commemorative Issue): 161–165.