Known as the Jackson Plan or Raffles Plan, this is the first published map of Singapore. Published in 1828, the map was drawn by Lieutenant Philip Jackson at the request of Singapore founder Sir Stamford Raffles (1781 - 1826). It is divided into two sections, a map of the island of Singapore, and a close-up plan of the town of Singapore. The city plan presents an idealized version of Singapore following the Raffles vision and, while not fully implemented, was influential in the early development of the colony.
Stamford Raffles founded Singapore as a British colony in 1819 and promptly returned to England, leaving William Farquhar (1774 - 1839) to manage the colony. From the beginning, Singapore witnessed rapid growth and a high volume as a port. With limited funds, Farquhar could not fully control the urban development of Singapore town and allowed for haphazard organic growth. When Raffles returned in October of 1822, he was displeased by the chaotic development and commissioned Lieutenant Philip Jackson, who himself had just arrived in Singapore, to create a new development plan outlining his ambitious urban vision.
The Raffles Vision
Raffles' plan for Singapore called for structured centrally planned development with racial and social segregation. He created a Town Committee to layout Singapore along six points:
- The area between the Old Lines (a ruined city wall roughly where Stamford Road now lies) and the Singapore River including a space up to 200 yards east of the Old Lines (i.e. up to where Bras Basah Road is now located) would be reserved as a cantonment for government use.
- The European area would be located to the east of the cantonment (the government area) as far as the ground that belonged to the Sultan. The area of the cantonment facing the sea and area southwest of the river between Circular Road and Telok Ayer Bay would be used for commerce.
- Raffles expected that the Chinese would constitute the largest community, and so reserved a large area south west of the Singapore River. Indians would be settled further up the river.
- The Bugis (who had already settled in Kampong Glam) and Arabs were to be allocated areas next to the Sultan's ground. Raffles did not believe that there would be significant Malay settlers, but thought they may settle the upper banks of the river.
- The sea front and port was to be reserved for public use.
- In addition to allocating land, Raffles also located the Telok Ayer Market, stipulated that that burial grounds be placed far from the town, and required urban uniformity.
Jackson incorporated all of Raffles' suggestions on this map. Although not exactly considered a master plan for the development of Singapore, Jackson's map had a strong influence on subsequent settlement and development of the colonial town.
Census and Publication History
The map was drawn in late 1822 or early 1823, but was not printed until John Crawfurd included it in the 1828 publication of his Journal of an Embassy from the Governor-General of India to the courts of Siam and Cochin-China: exhibiting a view of the actual state of those kingdoms.
. The plan was engraved in London by the firm of J. and C. Walker and was published by Henry Colburn. The map was included in all editions of Crawfurd's work, but is rarely found separately and is scarce to the market. The OCLC cites 3 separate examples at the British Library, the National Library Board of Singapore, and the BNF.
Philip Jackson (September 24, 1802 - 1879) was a British naval officer, surveyor, and engineer active in the early settlement and planning of Singapore. Jackson was born in Durham and joined the East India Company army at 16. He traveled to India with the Bengal Artillery Regiment and was subsequently posted to Singapore in January of 1822. Leveraging Jacksons experience as a surveyor and engineer, Singapore founder Stamford Raffles appointed him Assistant Engineer on October 29 of 1922. Jackson was tasked with realizing Raffles vision for the design and layout of Singapore and is credited with the first map of Singapore, published in 1828. Jackson was appointed surveyor of Singapore's public lands in February of 1826. More by this mapmaker...
J. and C. Walker (fl. 1820-95) J. and C. Walker were engravers, draughtsmen and publishers throughout the 19th century. While they are best known for their work for the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (S.D.U.K) they also produced much work for the British Admiralty, and on behalf of the British East India Company. John Walker, Alexander Walker and Charles Walker, known collectively as J & C Walker (fl. 1820 - 95), were engravers, draughtsmen and publishers working through the 19th century. They had several offices 47 Bernard St Russel Sq (from 1830 - 1836), 3 Burleigh St Strand (from 1837 to 1840), 9 Castle St Holborn (from 1841 to 1847) and 37 Castle St Holborn (from 1848 to 1875). The firm is best known for its work in conjunction with the maps issued by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge or, as it is more commonly known, the S.D.U.K. However, they also engraved a large corpus of work for the British Admiralty , as well as issuing several important maps of India and multiple issues of the Royal Atlas. Wa Learn More...
Henry Colburn (1784 - August 16, 1855) was a British publisher. Colburn started off in the publishing profession in the Albemarle Street shop of William Earle, a bookseller in London. His next move was to become an assistant at a circulating library on Conduit Street called Morgan's Library, which he took over in 1816. Eventually he signed this business over to Messrs. Saunders and Otley and opened his own publishing firm. He gained initial success with the roman à clef novel Glenavron by Lady Caroline Lamb and which was published in 1816. It went through four editions and sold well. Colburn later expanded on the success of Glenavron and published a series of so-called 'Silver Fork Novels', a series of books that afforded readers the thrill of peering into the lives of rich and aristocratic families. Colburn also started several periodicals, including the New Monthly Magazine, the Literary Gazette, the earliest weekly newspaper dedicated to literature, science, and the arts. Colburn married twice. His second marriage was to Eliza Anne, who survived him. Learn More...
Crawfurd, J., Journal of an Embassy from the Governor-General of India to the courts of Siam and Cochin-China: exhibiting a view of the actual state of those kingdoms, (London: H. Colburn), 1828.
Very good. Backed on archival tissue. Slight wear on original fold lines. Closed margin tear professionally repaired on verso. Blank on verso.
OCLC 557484724. Bonny Tan, 'Raffles Town Plan (Jackson Plan)', Singapore Infopedia. H. F. Pearson (July 1969). 'Lt. Jackson's Plan of Singapore', Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 42 (1 (215) Singapore 150th Anniversary Commemorative Issue): 161 - 165.