Preliminary Chart of Calibogue Sound and Skull Creek forming inside passage from Tybee Roads to Port Royal Sound South Carolina.
1862 (dated) 22.5 x 28 in (57.15 x 71.12 cm)
1 : 40000
This is an appealing 1862 U. S. Coast Survey nautical chart or maritime map of the Calibogue Sound and Skull Creek, South Carolina. Essentially divided into two sections on the same sheet, the section on the left half of the sheet focuses on Calibogue Sound from Tybee Island and the Savannah River north past Daufuskie Island and Bull's Island to Jarvis' Creek. The right section, centered on Pinckney Island, focuses on Skull Creek from Jarvis Creek north as far as Port Royal Sound. Countless depth soundings are noted in feet along with several notes on tides and other practical information for the mariner. Little inland detail is offered.
The triangulation of this map was conducted by C. O. Boutella, C. P. Bolles, E. O. C. Ord and D. T. Van Buren between 1851 to 1859. The topography was conducted by C. Rockwell. The Hydrography was accomplished by parties under the command of J. N. Maffitt and W. S. Edwards. The whole was compiled under the supervision of A. D. Bache, one of the most influential American cartographers of the 19th century. This chart represents plate no. 27 in A. D. Bache's 1862 Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey.
The Office of the Coast Survey, founded in 1807 by President Thomas Jefferson and Secretary of Commerce Albert Gallatin, is the oldest scientific organization in the U.S. Federal Government. Jefferson created the "Survey of the Coast," as it was then called, in response to a need for accurate navigational charts of the new nation's coasts and harbors. The spirit of the Coast Survey was defined by its first two superintendents. The first superintendent of the Coast Survey was Swiss immigrant and West Point mathematics professor Ferdinand Hassler. Under the direction of Hassler, from 1816 to 1843, the ideological and scientific foundations for the Coast Survey were established. These included using the most advanced techniques and most sophisticated equipment as well as an unstinting attention to detail. Hassler's devised a labor intensive triangulation system whereby the entire coast was divided into a series of enormous triangles. These were intern subdivided into smaller triangulation units that were then individually surveyed. Employing this exacting technique on such a massive scale had never before been attempted. Consequently Hassler and the Coast Survey under him developed a reputation for uncompromising dedication to the principles of accuracy and excellence. Unfortunately, despite being a masterful surveyor, Hassler was abrasive and politically unpopular, twice loosing congressional funding for the Coast Survey. Nonethelss, Hassler lead the Coast Survey until his death in 1843, at which time Alexander Dallas Bache, a great-grandson of Benjamin Franklin, took the helm. Bache was fully dedicated to the principles established by Hassler, but proved more politically astute and successfully lobbied Congress liberally fund the endeavor. Under the leadership of A. D. Bache, the Coast Survey completed its most important work. Moreover, during his long tenure with the Coast Survey, from 1843 to 1865, Bache was a steadfast advocate of American science and navigation and in fact founded the American Academy of Sciences. Bache was succeeded by Benjamin Pierce who ran the Survey from 1867 to 1874. Pierce was in turn succeeded by Carlile Pollock Patterson who was Superintendent from 1874 to 1881. In 1878, under Patterson's superintendence, the U.S. Coast Survey was reorganized as the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (C & GS or USGS) to accommodate topographic as well as nautical surveys. Today the Coast Survey is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or NOAA.
Bache, A. D., Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, (Washington) 1862.
Very good. Minor wear and toning along original fold lines. Professionally flattened and backed with archival paper.