1681 Jaillot Map of Westphalia, Germany
Description: This is a fine 1681 map of Westphalia, Germany by Alexis-Hubert Jaillot. It covers the Westphalia region in northwest Germany from Hamm south to Ferndorf and from Wipperfurth east as far as Menne. The map renders the entire region in extraordinary detail offering both topographical and political information with forest and mountains beautifully rendered in profile.
Westphalia was part of one of the 'imperial circles' created by the Holy Roman Empire in the 1500s. Groupings of regional territories were designed for defensive, tax, and administrative purposes within the empire. Westphalia, in 1648, became famous when the 'Peace of Westphalia' was signed in Munster and Osnabruck, ending the Thirty Years' War.
A beautifully engraved title cartouche adorns the lower left quadrant of this map, along with a compass rose, scale and legend. This map was created by Alexis-Hubert Jaillot and Guillaume Sanson in 1681.
Date: 1681 (dated)
Cartographer: The De L'Isle family (fl. c. 1700 - c. 1760) (also written Delisle) were, in composite, a mapmaking tour de force who redefined early 18th century European cartography. Claude De L'Isle (1644 -1720), the family patriarch, was Paris based a historian and geographer under Nicholas Sanson. De L'Isle and his sons were proponents of the school of "positive geography" and were definitive figures, defining the heights of the Golden Age of French Cartography. Of his twelve sons, four, Guillaume (1675- 1726), Simon Claude (1675 - 1726), Joseph Nicholas (1688 - 1768) and Louis (1720 - 1745), made a significant contributions to cartography. Without a doubt Guillaume was the most remarkable member of the family. It is said that Guillaume's skill as a cartographer was so prodigious that he drew his first map at just nine years of age. He was tutored by J. D. Cassini in astronomy, science, mathematics and cartography. By applying these diverse disciplines to the vast stores of information provided by 18th century navigators, Guillaume created the technique that came to be known as "scientific cartography", essentially an extension of Sanson's "positive geography". This revolutionary approach transformed the field of cartography and created a more accurate picture of the world. Among Guillaume's many firsts are the first naming of Texas, the first correct map of the Mississippi, the final rejection of the insular California fallacy, and the first identification of the correct longitudes of America. Stylistically De L'Isle also initiated important changes to the medium, eschewing the flamboyant Dutch style of the previous century in favor of a highly detailed yet still decorative approach that yielded map both beautiful and informative. Guillaume was elected to the French Academie Royale des Sciences at 27. Later, in 1718, he was also appointed "Premier Geographe du Roi", an office created especially for him. De L'Isle personally financed the publication of most of his maps, hoping to make heavy royalties on their sales. Unfortunately he met an untimely death in 1728, leaving considerable debt and an impoverished child and widow. De L'Isle's publishing firm was taken over by his assistant, Phillipe Buache who became, posthumously, his son in law. The other De L'Isle brothers, Joseph Nicholas and Louis De L'Isle, were employed in the Service of Peter the Great of Russia as astronomers and surveyors. They are responsible for cataloguing and compiling the data obtained from Russian expeditions in the Pacific and along the northwest coast of America, including the seminal explorations of Vitus Bering and Aleksei Chirikov. The De L'Isles, like their rivals the Vaugondys , must be considered speculative geographers. Speculative geography was a genre of mapmaking that evolved in Europe, particularly Paris, in the middle to late 18th century. Cartographers in this genre would fill in unknown areas on their maps with speculations based upon their vast knowledge of cartography, personal geographical theories, and often dubious primary source material gathered by explorers and navigators. This approach, which attempted to use the known to validate the unknown, naturally engendered many rivalries. The era of speculatively cartography effectively ended with the late 18th century explorations of Captain Cook, Jean Francois de Galaup de La Perouse, and George Vancouver. Click here for a list of maps by the De L'Isle (Delisle) family.
Cartographer: Nicholas Sanson (1600 - 1667) and his descendants were important French cartographers active throughout the 17th century. Sanson started his career as a historian where, it is said, he turned to cartography as a way to illustrate his historical studies. In the course of his research some of his fine maps came to the attention of King Louis XIII who, admiring the quality of his work, appointed Sanson "Geographe Ordinaire du Roi". Sanson's duties in this coved position included advising the King on matters of geography and compiling the royal cartographic archive. In 1644 he partnered with Pierre Mariette, an established print dealer and engraver, whose business savvy and ready capital enabled Sanson to publish an enormous quantity of maps. Sanson's corpus of some three hundred maps initiated the golden age of French mapmaking and he is considered the "Father of French Cartography". His work is distinguished as being the first of the "Positive Geographers", a primarily French school of cartography that valued scientific observation over historical cartographic conventions. Sanson is most admired for his construction of the magnificent atlas Cartes Generales de Toutes les Parties du Monde. Sanson's maps of North America, Amerique Septentrionale (1650) and La Canada ou Nouvelle France (1656) are exceptionally notable for their important contributions to the cartographic perceptions of the New World. Both maps utilize the discoveries of important French missionaries and are among the first published maps to show the Great Lakes in recognizable form. Sanson was also an active proponent of the insular California theory, wherein it was speculated that California was an island rather than a peninsula. After his death, Sanson's maps were frequently republished, without updates, by his sons, Guillaume (? - 1703) and Adrien Sanson (? - 1708). However, Sanson's true cartographic legacy as a "positive geographer" was carried on by others, including A. H. Jaillot, Guillaume De L'Isle, Gilles Robert de Vaugondy, and Pierre Duval. Click here for a list of rare maps from Nicholas Sanson.
Size: Printed area measures 23 x 17.5 inches (58.42 x 44.45 centimeters)
Scale: 1 : 200000
Condition: Very good. Minor wear and verso reinforcement along original centerfold. Original platemark visible.
Printable Info Sheet
Code: DucheDeWestphalie-jaillot-1681 (to order by phone call: 646-320-8650)
Tags: Jaillot , Sanson , Imperial Circles , Central Europe