France, Divided into Provinces.
1799 (dated) 14 x 16 in (35.56 x 40.64 cm)
A fine 1799 map of France Divided into Provinces by the English map publisher Clement Cruttwell. France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the department system superseded provinces. The change was an attempt to eradicate local loyalties based on feudal ownership of land and focus all loyalty on the central government in Paris. There were roughly 40 provinces in France before they were abolished. Maps displays all provinces, including the province of Île-de-France, the center of power during most of French history. Many atlas produced during this period thus included two maps of France, one in Provinces, and one in Departments. Includes parts adjacent Austrian Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Italy, and Spain. Includes rivers, political boundaries, important cities, ports and gulfs. Mountains and other topographical features shown by profile. Outline color and fine copper plate engraving in the minimalist English style prevalent in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Drawn by Clement Cruttwell and published in the 1799 Atlas to Cruttwell's Gazetteer.
Clement Cruttwell (1743 - August 5, 1808) was an English book and map publisher active in Bath and London in the late 18th and early 19th century. Cruttwell was born the son of William Cruttwell, a gentleman of Wokingham, Berkshire, England. As a young man Cruttwell was educated to be an Anglican Reverend and consequently maintained a lifelong interest in religious matters. Throughout his life, he published a number of religious works and geographical gazetteers including several focused on the British Isles and one dedicated to France. Though little is known of Cruttwell today, he was highly regarded in his own time. In his obituary, a period publication, The Universal Magazine of Knowledge and Pleasure describes Cruttwell as
a gentleman whose various literary performances, for labour, extent, and utility, have rarely been equaled, and, when regarded as the productions of an unassisted valetudinarian, have perhaps never been surpassed.
Cruttwell was also a known correspondent of George Washington to whom he sent his own translation of the Holy Bible, which Washington kept in his personal library until his death.
Cruttwell, C., Atlas to Cruttwell's Gazetteer, 1799.
Very good. Original centerfold. Platemark visible. Some offsetting. Moderate overall toning. Blank on verso.