1858 U.S. Coast Survey Map of the Brazos River Entrance, Texas (Freeport, Quintana, Velasco)
Preliminary Chart of Entrance to Brazon River, Texas
1858 (dated) 15.5 x 18.5 in (39.37 x 46.99 cm)
An uncommon example of the 1858 U.S. Coast Survey nautical chart or maritime map of the entrance to the Brazos River, Texas. The map focuses on the Brazos River's outlet into the Gulf of Mexico an includes the Texas towns of Quintana and Velasco, both of which are now incorporated into the city of Freeport, Texas. As a nautical map it further includes countless depth soundings (in feet) and a wealth of practical information for the mariner. The triangulation for this map was completed by J. S. Williams. The topography is the work of J. M Wampler. The hydrography was accomplished by a team under the command of e. J. De Haven and J. K Duer. The whole was compiled under the direction of A. D. Bache, one of the U.S. Coast Survey's most influential and prolific superintendents, for issue in the 1858 annual report to Congress.
The Office of the Coast Survey, founded in 1807 by President Thomas Jefferson and Secretary of Commerce Albert Gallatin, is the oldest scientific organization in the U.S. Federal Government. Jefferson created the "Survey of the Coast," as it was then called, in response to a need for accurate navigational charts of the new nation's coasts and harbors. The spirit of the Coast Survey was defined by its first two superintendents. The first superintendent of the Coast Survey was Swiss immigrant and West Point mathematics professor Ferdinand Hassler. Under the direction of Hassler, from 1816 to 1843, the ideological and scientific foundations for the Coast Survey were established. These included using the most advanced techniques and most sophisticated equipment as well as an unstinting attention to detail. Hassler devised a labor intensive triangulation system whereby the entire coast was divided into a series of enormous triangles. These were in turn subdivided into smaller triangulation units that were then individually surveyed. Employing this exacting technique on such a massive scale had never before been attempted. Consequently, Hassler and the Coast Survey under him developed a reputation for uncompromising dedication to the principles of accuracy and excellence. Unfortunately, despite being a masterful surveyor, Hassler was abrasive and politically unpopular, twice losing congressional funding for the Coast Survey. Nonetheless, Hassler led the Coast Survey until his death in 1843, at which time Alexander Dallas Bache, a great-grandson of Benjamin Franklin, took the helm. Bache was fully dedicated to the principles established by Hassler, but proved more politically astute and successfully lobbied Congress to liberally fund the endeavor. Under the leadership of A. D. Bache, the Coast Survey completed its most important work. Moreover, during his long tenure with the Coast Survey, from 1843 to 1865, Bache was a steadfast advocate of American science and navigation and in fact founded the American Academy of Sciences. Bache was succeeded by Benjamin Pierce who ran the Survey from 1867 to 1874. Pierce was in turn succeeded by Carlile Pollock Patterson who was Superintendent from 1874 to 1881. In 1878, under Patterson's superintendence, the U.S. Coast Survey was reorganized as the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (C & GS) to accommodate topographic as well as nautical surveys. Today the Coast Survey is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or NOAA as the National Geodetic Survey.
Bache, A. D., Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, (Washington) 1858.
Good. Some discoloration and loss on original fold lines. Backed with archival tissue for stability.