最新支那詳細大地圖 / [Latest Detailed Map of China].
31 x 21.5 in (78.74 x 54.61 cm)
1 : 1500000
This is a 1937 Fuchida Tadayoshi map of China published in King (キング) magazine during the opening phase of the Second Sino-Japanese War (World War II).
A Closer LookBetween the front (recto) and back (verso), the map shows the entire front of the early phase of the conflict, from Japanese puppet states in Manchuria and northern China to China's southern coastal provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. At front is the coastal regions of northern China, roughly as far as Shanghai, where Japanese influence was already strong after years of expanding its military and economic presence.
The level of detail is extraordinary, particularly for a popular publication, but also highlights the immensity of the task facing Japan if it intended to occupy all of China. It is worth noting that, at the time of publication, it was not clear that the hostilities in China would evolve into a full-scale, protracted war. Japan initially hoped for more Chinese concessions and piecemeal territorial gains, and later aimed to deliver a severe enough blow to force Chiang to surrender. Full mobilization on a total war basis only commenced the following year, when it became clear that Chiang and his troops had no intention of surrendering despite losing Shanghai, Nanjing, and much else.
Verso ContentThe back (verso) includes two larger maps, a wider perspective of eastern China and a map of central China from Shanghai southwards, respectively. The inset maps are, starting at top-right and moving clockwise, Beiping (Beijing), Tianjin, Qingdao, Guangdong (Guangzhou), Hong Kong, Wuhan (Hankou, Wuchang, and Hanyang), Jinan, Shanghai, and Nanjing.
The Battle for Shanghai and Its AftermathStarting with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria (the 'Mukden Incident') in September 1931, Chinese and Japanese troops fought on-again, off-again battles in northern China for several years. One of these many skirmishes took place on July 7, 1937, at the 'Marco Polo Bridge' (Lugouwiao 盧溝橋), just to the southwest of Beijing. Chiang Kai-Shek was reluctant to throw his armies into a full-scale war against the better trained and equipped Japanese forces, but was compelled to bow to public pressure and launch the long-expected war.
Chiang decided to dedicate the bulk of his best trained and equipped forces to a battle for Shanghai, allowing Beijing (at this time Beiping) to fall along with the rest of coastal north China, which was already within Japan's sphere of influence and virtually impossible to defend. Chiang also decided to focus on Shanghai because of the city's international profile and the large numbers of foreigners there; his strategy for winning the war relied in part on gaining foreign support, which ultimately succeeded. Due to the speed and surprise of their attack, Chinese troops at first succeeded in seizing territory defended by Japanese garrison forces in Shanghai, but lost momentum as Japanese reinforcements and heavy weapons came into play. Chinese-administered parts of the city, particularly Zhabei and Wusong to the north and east of the International Settlement, along with the Japanese neighborhood of Hongkou in the International Settlement, saw extensive bombardment and house-to-house fighting.
Despite the valiant efforts of Chinese troops, Japanese forces had naval, air, and artillery superiority and were able to receive sufficient resupply and reinforcements, gradually turning the tide over several months. With most Chinese forces engaged in and around the city, a massive pincer counter-attack was prepared, similar to the Soviet victory at Stalingrad six years later. Severely weakened by the fighting in Shanghai and with many units in disarray, Chiang arranged a hasty defense of Nanjing while planning for a retreat to Chongqing, deep in the Chinese interior, to prepare for a long-term war of attrition.
King Magazine and KōdanshaKing (キング) was a monthly general interest magazine published from 1924 – 1957 by Dai Nippon Yūbenkai Kōdansha (大日本雄辯會講談社, now known simply as Kōdansha). It was one of the most important magazines in Japan in this period, and its wide range of material combined with a readership that cut across typical class and geographical divisions meant that King was an important contributor to the birth of mass culture in Japan. Along with King, Kōdansha published a number of other magazines including Women's Club (婦人倶樂部) and Boy's Club (少年倶樂部) and had become a major shaper of Japanese culture and public opinion by the 1930s, controlling 70% of the magazine market.
Founded by the dynamic Noma Seiji (野間淸治), Kōdansha suffered difficulties during the war period, due to both intense censorship and the death of both Noma Seiji and his son, Noma Hasashi (野間恒), within weeks of each other in 1938. Still, the company survived the wartime era and, after a period of difficulties during the U.S. Occupation due to Kōdansha's endorsement of militarism, benefitted from a postwar publishing revival. Although King and other magazines ceased publication in the postwar period, Kōdansha branched into other areas, including manga and music recording, and is now the largest publisher in Japan.
Publication History and CensusThis map was printed on September 3, 1937 (Showa 12) and published on October 1 as a supplement to King (キング) magazine. It was edited and published by Fuchida Tadayoshi (淵田忠良) of Kōdansha (式会社講談社), printed by Yokota Shūji (横田秀治) of the Dai Nippon Printing Co. (大日本印刷株式會社), and drawn and engraved by the firm Atlas (アトラス社). It is known by us to exist in the institutional holdings of Cornell University and the National Library of China.
Fuchida Tadayoshi (淵田忠良; Fl. c. 1928 - 1940) was a Japanese editor and writer with Dai Nippon Yūbenkai Kōdansha (大日本雄辯會講談社), a major magazine publisher of the era. He was responsible for overseeing a series of maps of China, Manchuria, Mongolia, and other regions that were published as special addendums to Kodansha publications, especially King (キング) magazine. Learn More...
Kodansha (式会社講談社, 1909 - Present), also known as Dai Nippon Odankai Kodansha, is a Japanese publishing house founded in 1909 by Seiji Noma (野間淸治). Seiji founded Kodansha as a spin-off from the Dai-Nippon Yūbenkai (Greater Japan Oratorical Society) and produced the literary magazine Yūben as its first publication. The name Kodansha, a derivative of the defunct magazine Kōdan Club (Storytelling Club), in 1911, which it merged with the Dai-Nippon Yūbenkai. In 1925, Kodansha launched King (キング) , the first magazine to sell 1,000,000 copies in its first printing. Kōdansha published several other magazines including Women's Club (婦人倶樂部) and Boy's Club (少年倶樂部) and had become a major shaper of Japanese culture and public opinion by the 1930s, controlling 70% of the magazine market. Kōdansha suffered difficulties during the war period, due to both intense censorship and the 1938 death of both Noma Seiji and his son, Noma Hasashi (野間恒), within weeks of one another. Still, the company survived the wartime era and, after a period of difficulties during the U.S. Occupation due to Kōdansha's endorsement of militarism, benefitted from a postwar publishing revival. Although King and other magazines ceased publication in the postwar period, Kōdansha branched into other areas, including manga and music recording, and is now the largest publisher in Japan. Learn More...
Yokota Shūji (横田秀治; fl. c. 1935 - 1939) was a Japanese printer with the Dai Nippon Printing Co. (大日本印刷株式會社) who worked on at least two maps that appeared in King (キング) magazine, published by Dai Nippon Yūbenkai Kōdansha (大日本雄辯會講談社). Learn More...
Dai Nippon Printing (大日本印刷株式會社; 1876 - present) is a Tokyo-based printing company with roots dating back to the Meiji era with the publisher Shūeisha (秀英舎), which developed a reputation for embracing new technologies and mechanization over traditional woodblock methods. In 1935, Shūeisha merged with Nisshin Printing (日清印刷), a publisher related to Waseda University, to form Dai Nippon Printing. In the postwar period, the company expanded further and was listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange in 1949. In the mid-1950s, Dai Nippon was involved in printing the first editions of the Kōjien (広辞苑) dictionary, akin to Merriam-Websters in the United States or the Oxford English Dictionary in Britain, as well as Shukan Shincho (週刊新潮), long one of the most popular weekly news magazines in Japan. In subsequent years, the company branched out internationally and into other industries, including bottling Coca-Cola, but, like the publishing industry as a whole, has faced financial difficulties in recent years. Learn More...
Atlas (アトラス社; fl. c. 1930 – 1945) was a Tokyo-based firm that drafted, engraved, and printed maps and books. Its maps in particular focused on the geography of Japan's growing empire in the 1930s and early 1940s. Learn More...
Average. Wear and loss along fold lines. Wormholes at bottom-left. Periodic foxing.