Carte Générale des États-Unis et du Mexique comprenant l'Amérique Centrale et les Antilles.
1862 (dated) 26.75 x 38 in (67.945 x 96.52 cm)
1 : 7143000
This is an 1862 Eugène Andriveau-Goujon and Alexandre Vuillemin map of the United States and Mexico. The map depicts the region from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean and from southern Canada (Nouvelle Bretagne to Honduras. Andriveau's map features several cartographic eccentricities in the western United States, making it an intriguing historical document, even if we are left with more questions than definitive answers.
Two early names for American states - where did they come from?While the cartography east of the Mississippi appears to be fairly standard (although Andriveau and Vuillemin do not mention the American Civil War and the existence of the Confederacy), the geography west of the mighty Mississippi is incredibly interesting. When there are so many different avenues to trace, sometimes it is hard to know where to begin. With this map we have chosen to start with two nearly untraceable names that appear on the map: Shoshone, in the region of what would soon become the Idaho Territory, and Colona, where Colorado would soon appear. The former of these two names, Shoshone, is much easier to trace, as Shoshone is the name of a group of Native American tribes that live in the northwest United States. Numerous state names came from Native American words, such as Illinois and Nebraska. Even Idaho is said to have been derived from a Shoshone word, although there is much debate about this and little to no concrete proof. Thus, the idea that another state would be named after a tribe, as the Dakotas would only a few years after the creation of this map. Colona, however, has proven much harder to explain. We have been unable to unearth any references that use this name, so we have no solid explanation to put forward. Our theory is that Colona, which is very similar to Colorado, could simply be a 'lost in translation' moment between the United States and France, where this map was created. .
NevadaNevada is labeled in the western part of the Utah Territory, which is exactly where it should be, as the Nevada Territory was created on March 2, 1861.
Dacotah (Dagotah) and MinnesotaDuring the nearly three year period between Minnesota's statehood on May 11, 1858 and the creation of the Dakota Territory in March 2, 1861, the portion of what had been the Minnesota Territory that fell between the Missouri River and Red River, Minnesota's newly-created western border, remained unattached to any official territory of the United States. Immediately following Minnesota's statehood, a provisional government was set up in the Pembina Region which lobbied for recognition as a territory. In doing so, a formally recognized local government would be in place, which is an important part of encouraging settlement in a region. Even so, the proposal was mostly ignored by the Federal government until the Dakota Territory was formed, which upon its creation included most of present-day Montana, Wyoming, and both North and South Dakota. Curiously, however, Dagotah is written in the same typeface as that of Shoshone, Colona, Nevada, and Arizona, leading us to believe even more strongly that this typeface indicates that Andriveau and Vuillemin are unsure of the ever-changing geography in the western United States.
Confederate ArizonaInterestingly, even though the Confederate States of America are not formally illustrated here, Confederate Arizona is, in the lower third of the New Mexico Territory. Confederate Arizona was a territory claimed by the Confederate States of America from 1861 until 1865. The idea for an Arizona Territory appears as early as 1856, when the government of the Territory of New Mexico began to express concerns about being able to effectively govern the southern part of the territory, as it was separated from Santa Fe by the Jornada del Muerto, a particularly unforgiving stretch of desert. The New Mexico territorial legislature acted on these concerns in February 1858, approving a resolution in favor of creating an Arizona Territory, with a north-south border to be defined along the 32nd parallel. Impatiently waiting for Congress to approve the creation of the new territory, 31 delegates met at a convention in Tucson in April 1860 and drafted a constitution for the 'Territory of Arizona', which was to be organized out of the New Mexico Territory below 34th parallel. The convention even elected a territorial governor and a delegate to Congress. Congress, however, was reluctant to act. Anti-slavery Representatives knew that the proposed territory was located below the line of demarcation set forth by the Missouri Compromise for the creation of new slave and free states, and they were not inclined to create yet another slave state. Thus, Congress never ratified the proceedings of the Tucson convention, and the Provisional Territory was never considered a legal entity.
At the beginning of the Civil War, support for the Confederacy ran high in the southern parts of the New Mexico Territory. Local concerns drove this sentiment, including a belief that the war would lead to an insufficient number of Federal troops to protect the citizens from the Apache, while others simply felt neglected by the government in Washington. Also, the Butterfield Overland Mail Route (an overland mail and stagecoach route from Memphis and St. Louis to San Francisco) was closed in 1861, depriving the people of Arizona of their connection to California and the East Coast.
All of these factors led to the people of the southern New Mexico Territory, or the Arizona Territory, to formally call for secession, and a convention adopted a secession ordinance on March 16, 1861, with a subsequent ordinance ratified on March 28, establishing the provisional territorial government of the Confederate 'Territory of Arizona'. The Confederate Arizona Territory was officially proclaimed on August 1, 1861 following Lieutenant-Colonel J. R. Baylor's victory over Union forces in the First Battle of Mesilla, and the territory was officially recognized by the government of the Confederacy on February 14, 1862. However, by July 1862, Union forces from California, known as the 'California Column' were marching on the territorial capital of Mesilla. Sent to protect California from a possible Confederate incursion, the 'California Column' drove Confederate forces out of the city, allowing them to retreat to Franklin, Texas. The territorial government fled as well and spent the rest of the war in 'exile'. First, they retreated to Franklin, then, after Confederate forces abandoned Franklin and all of West Texas, to San Antonio, where the 'government-in-exile' would spend the rest of the war. Confederate units from Arizona would fight for the rest of the war, and the delegate from Arizona attended both the First and Second Confederate Congresses.
Why no Confederate States of America?With the inclusion of Confederate Arizona, the question of why the Confederacy was not included on this map becomes even more apparent. In our opinion, there may be two reasons for this reality. First, the exclusion of the Confederacy may be a reflection of French history. Since the French Revolution of 1789, France had been through a revolutionary government (complete with its own calendar), a dictatorship under Napoleon Bonaparte, the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy, the establishment of a liberal constitutional monarchy, another dictatorship, and finally the establishment of the Second Empire in 1852. With all of this political upheaval in the space of just over seventy years, Andriveau and Vuillemin may have considered the inclusion of the Confederacy to be superfluous. With their experience of life in France, no matter how the American Civil War ended, the geography of the United States was unlikely to change. On the other hand, it may also illuminate the politics of Andriveau and Vuillemin, in that they overtly chose not to include the Confederacy. This may have been their way of not supporting the rebellion and showing support of the U.S. government. That being said, all of the preceding paragraph is purely speculation and educated guesswork.
A Closer Look at the Map ItselfAll of the incredibly interesting political intrigue aside, the geography of this map is still incredibly important. Myriad cities and towns throughout the United States, Mexico, and the Caribbean are labeled. Roads and railroads wind their way across the country (although much more densely in the northern states than in the southern states. Individual states in both the U.S. and Mexico are shaded different colors to allow for easy differentiation, and a key is included along the bottom border to explain the various different notations used. Four inset maps are included as well, three of which are along the right side. The highest illustrates Long Island and the 'entry into New York', while the one just below that depicts the connections between the Old and New Worlds. In the lower right corner is an inset map of the Lesser Antilles and northern South America, while Central America, from Mexico to Panama, is detailed in an inset in the lower left corner.
Publication History and CensusThis map was drawn by Alexandre Vuillemin and published by Eugène Andriveau-Goujon in 1862. We are aware of three examples that are part of institutional collections at the University of Virginia, Benedictine College, and the University of Texas. It is scarce on the market and has only appeared on the market a handful of times in the last decade.
Eugène Andriveau-Goujon (1832 - 1897) was a map publisher and cartographer active in 19th century Paris. Maps by Andriveau-Goujon are often confusing to identify as they can be alternately singed J. Goujon, J. Andriveau, J.Andriveau-Goujon, E. Andriveau-Goujon, or simply Andriveau-Goujon. This refers to the multiple generations of the Andriveau-Goujon dynasty and the tendency to republisher older material without updating the imprint. The earliest maps to have the Andriveau-Goujon imprint were released by Jean Andriveau-Goujon. He passed the business to his son Gilbert-Gabriel Andriveau-Goujon, who in 1858 passed to his son, Eugène Andriveau-Goujon, under whose management the firm was most prolific. Andriveau-Goujon published numerous fine pocket maps and atlases throughout the 19th century and often worked with other prominent French cartographers of the time such as Brue and Levasseur. The firm's stock was acquired by M. Barrère in 1892.
Alexandre Vuillemin (1812-1880) was a cartographer and an book editor based in Paris, France. Despite a prolific cartographic career, much of Vuillemin's life is shrouded in mystery. What is known is that his studied under the prominent French Auguste Henri Dufour (1798-1865). Vuillemin's most important work his detailed, highly decorative large format Atlas Illustre de Geographie Commerciale et Industrielle.
Very good. Dissected and mounted on linen in 21 panels. Blank on verso.