最新歐洲大地圖 (附列強國勢國防一覽) / [Latest Map of Europe (with an overview of the national strength and defenses of the major powers)].
30.75 x 42.5 in (78.105 x 107.95 cm)
1 : 16500000
This is a very rare and unusual Japanese portrayal of European military power by Fuchida Tadayoshi - illustrated to support Japanese interest in the increasingly tense situation in Europe, as well as to emphasize to the Japanese public the value of European alliances. It was published as a supplement to the January 1, 1936 (Showa 11), edition of King (キング) magazine. The map, along with the included insets, charts, and graphs, describes the military and economic situation in Europe at the time and the relationship of Japan to the emerging European conflict.
A Closer LookThis map covers the western end of Eurasia, North Africa, the North Atlantic, and the eastern seaboard of Canada and the United States. Soldier figurines, ships, and airplanes represent the ground, sea, and air forces of the United States, Britain, France, Germany (in the North Sea), the Soviet Union, and Italy (in Libya), with the number of troops, ships, and planes written underneath the illustrations. Individual fleets of the various navies are also depicted with a ship outline and red text, noting the types and numbers of ships in each fleet. A note next to legend states that estimations of ground and air forces are based on a 1932 report by the League of Nations, but that military forces of Germany and the Soviet Union had expanded considerably since then.
Several inset maps, charts, and tables provide all manner of information on international relations, trade, and economics. At top, over Greenland, a table lists alliances, treaties, and diplomatic agreements between European powers. At bottom-left are projections of (roughly) the Eastern and Western Hemisphere in 145000000 scale. A legend notes symbols indicating roads, railways, sea and air routes, ports, wireless telecommunications stations, cities of various sizes, Japanese consulates and embassies, and geographic features.
Two inset maps sit below the legend: the map at right shows Europe's borders before the Great War, while the map at left shows the distribution of ethnicities and 'races' in Europe according to a color-coding system, with Latins as brown, 'Teutons' as red, Slavs as green, Celts as purple, and Asians as yellow. This map reveals the common acceptance of pseudoscientific racial categorizations and scientific racism in Japan at the time.
To the right are a series of charts and diagrams with geographic and economic information, including, from top: a comparison of each country's land area, the total population and population density of each country, the national wealth of each country, each country's share of global shipping, and trade statistics for each country. Japan and, in most cases, the U.S. are also included in these tables, though the focus is on Europe. The circular diagram at bottom-right shows Japan's imports (at top) and exports (at bottom) with major European economies (based on 1934 statistics). Overall, Japan ran a trade deficit with Europe and its largest European trading partner was Britain, with whom it had a considerable trade surplus; Germany was a close second, with Japan importing much more than it exported to Germany.
The Origins of the Second World WarThis map was produced at a time when Europe and the world began sliding towards a major conflict, though it did not necessarily appear that way at the time. In retrospect, Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931, gradual occupation of northern China in the mid-1930s, and increasing antagonism towards Great Britain and the United States were major antecedents to World War II in Asia. In Europe, in the months just prior to this map's publication, Italy had invaded Ethiopia and established the Rome-Berlin Axis with Nazi Germany (Japan was already negotiating behind closed doors to join the Axis). The major common factor tying the situations in Asia and Europe together was the Soviet Union, which both Japan and Germany viewed as a malign force dedicated to exporting Communism throughout the world. By the end of 1936, Japan and Germany would sign the Anti-Comintern Pact, a predecessor to the Tripartite Pact signed (with Italy also) in September 1940. 1936 also saw the Spanish Civil War break out, which became a proxy war for contending ideologies and powers, especially Germany and the Soviet Union.
King Magazine and KōdanshaKing (キング) was a monthly general interest magazine published from 1924 – 1957 by Dai Nippon Yūbenkai Kōdansha (大日本雄辯會講談社, now known simply as Kōdansha). It was one of the most important magazines in Japan in this period, and its wide range of material combined with a readership that cut across typical class and geographical divisions meant that King was an important contributor to the birth of mass culture in Japan. Along with King, Kōdansha published a number of other magazines including Women's Club (婦人倶樂部) and Boy's Club (少年倶樂部) and had become a major shaper of Japanese culture and public opinion by the 1930s, controlling 70% of the magazine market.
Founded by the dynamic Noma Seiji (野間淸治), Kōdansha suffered difficulties during the war period, due to both intense censorship and the death of both Noma Seiji and his son, Noma Hasashi (野間恒), within weeks of each other in 1938. Still, the company survived the wartime era and, after a period of difficulties during the U.S. Occupation due to Kōdansha's earlier endorsement of militarism, benefitted from a postwar publishing revival. Although King and other magazines ceased publication in the postwar period, Kōdansha branched into other areas, including manga and music recording, and is now the largest publisher in Japan.
Publication History and CensusThis map was edited and distributed by Fuchida Tadayoshi (淵田忠良), engraved by Mori Yoshio (森芳雄) and printed by Yokota Shūji (横田秀治), both of Dai Nippon Printing (大日本印刷株式會社), and was published by Dai Nippon Yūbenkai Kōdansha (大日本雄辯會講談社) as a supplement to the January 1, 1936 (Showa 11) edition of King (キング) magazine. The map is held by the National Diet Library and is scarce to the market.
Fuchida Tadayoshi (淵田忠良; Fl. c. 1928 - 1940) was a Japanese editor and writer with Dai Nippon Yūbenkai Kōdansha (大日本雄辯會講談社), a major magazine publisher of the era. He was responsible for overseeing a series of maps of China, Manchuria, Mongolia, and other regions that were published as special addendums to Kodansha publications, especially King (キング) magazine. Learn More...
Kodansha (式会社講談社, 1909 - Present), also known as Dai Nippon Odankai Kodansha, is a Japanese publishing house founded in 1909 by Seiji Noma (野間淸治). Seiji founded Kodansha as a spin-off from the Dai-Nippon Yūbenkai (Greater Japan Oratorical Society) and produced the literary magazine Yūben as its first publication. The name Kodansha, a derivative of the defunct magazine Kōdan Club (Storytelling Club), in 1911, which it merged with the Dai-Nippon Yūbenkai. In 1925, Kodansha launched King (キング) , the first magazine to sell 1,000,000 copies in its first printing. Kōdansha published several other magazines including Women's Club (婦人倶樂部) and Boy's Club (少年倶樂部) and had become a major shaper of Japanese culture and public opinion by the 1930s, controlling 70% of the magazine market. Kōdansha suffered difficulties during the war period, due to both intense censorship and the 1938 death of both Noma Seiji and his son, Noma Hasashi (野間恒), within weeks of one another. Still, the company survived the wartime era and, after a period of difficulties during the U.S. Occupation due to Kōdansha's endorsement of militarism, benefitted from a postwar publishing revival. Although King and other magazines ceased publication in the postwar period, Kōdansha branched into other areas, including manga and music recording, and is now the largest publisher in Japan. Learn More...
Mori Yoshio (森芳雄; December 21, 1908 - November 10, 1997) was an accomplished Japanese painter and ocassional cartographer who also worked in the film industry during the Pacific War. He primarily painted in the Western style and was selected to study painting in France in his youth after winning several international awards. After the war, he continued to paint and taught at the Musashino Art University in Tokyo. Learn More...
Dai Nippon Printing (大日本印刷株式會社; 1876 - present) is a Tokyo-based printing company with roots dating back to the Meiji era with the publisher Shūeisha (秀英舎), which developed a reputation for embracing new technologies and mechanization over traditional woodblock methods. In 1935, Shūeisha merged with Nisshin Printing (日清印刷), a publisher related to Waseda University, to form Dai Nippon Printing. In the postwar period, the company expanded further and was listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange in 1949. In the mid-1950s, Dai Nippon was involved in printing the first editions of the Kōjien (広辞苑) dictionary, akin to Merriam-Websters in the United States or the Oxford English Dictionary in Britain, as well as Shukan Shincho (週刊新潮), long one of the most popular weekly news magazines in Japan. In subsequent years, the company branched out internationally and into other industries, including bottling Coca-Cola, but, like the publishing industry as a whole, has faced financial difficulties in recent years. Learn More...
Yokota Shūji (横田秀治; fl. c. 1935 - 1939) was a Japanese printer with the Dai Nippon Printing Co. (大日本印刷株式會社) who worked on at least two maps that appeared in King (キング) magazine, published by Dai Nippon Yūbenkai Kōdansha (大日本雄辯會講談社). Learn More...