Etat de l'Eglise, Grand Duche de Toscane, et Isle de Corse.
1750 (undated) 19.5 x 22 in (49.53 x 55.88 cm)
1 : 930000
This is an attractive 1750 map by Robert de Vaugondy depicting central Italy and regions of Tuscany, the Papal States and the Island of Corsica. It covers from Ferrara and Parma south to Terracina. Several important towns, cities, roads, rivers, lakes and other topographical features are noted, with elevation beautifully rendered.
This map shows the Italian peninsula prior to its struggle for national solidarity which would emerge as a movement about 50 years later in the early 19th century. The peninsula was divided into numerous independent states, duchies, republics, kingdoms and, of course, the Papal States (States of the Church).
A beautifully illustrated title cartouche adorns the top right quadrant of the map. Issued in the 1757 issue of the Atlas Universal. The Atlas Universal was one of the first atlases based upon actual surveys. Therefore, this map is highly accurate (for the period) and has most contemporary town names correct, though historic names are, in many cases, incorrect or omitted.
Gilles (1688 - 1766) and Didier (c. 1723 - 1786) Robert de Vaugondy were map publishers, engravers, and cartographers active in Paris during the mid-18th century. The father and son team were the inheritors to the important Sanson cartographic firm whose stock supplied much of their initial material. Graduating from Sanson's map's Gilles, and more particularly Didier, began to produce their own substantial corpus of work. Vaugondys were well respected for the detail and accuracy of their maps in which they made excellent use of the considerable resources available in 18th century Paris to produce the most accurate and fantasy-free maps possible. The Vaugondys compiled each map based upon their own superior geographic knowledge, scholarly research, the journals of contemporary explorers and missionaries, and direct astronomical observation - moreover, unlike many cartographers of this period, they commonly took pains to reference their source material. Nevertheless, even in 18th century Paris geographical knowledge was severely limited - especially regarding those unexplored portions of the world, including the poles, the Pacific northwest of America, and the interior of Africa and South America. In these areas the Vaugondys, like their rivals De L'Isle and Buache, must be considered speculative geographers. Speculative geography was a genre of mapmaking that evolved in Europe, particularly Paris, in the middle to late 18th century. Cartographers in this genre would fill in unknown areas on their maps with speculations based upon their vast knowledge of cartography, personal geographical theories, and often dubious primary source material gathered by explorers and navigators. This approach, which attempted to use the known to validate the unknown, naturally engendered many rivalries. Vaugondy's feuds with other cartographers, most specifically Phillipe Buache, resulted in numerous conflicting papers being presented before the Academie des Sciences, of which both were members. The era of speculatively cartography effectively ended with the late 18th century explorations of Captain Cook, Jean Francois de Galaup de La Perouse, and George Vancouver.
Vaugondy, R., Atlas Universel (Paris) 1757.
Very good. Original platemark visible. Minor wear and toning along original centerfold. Water stains near top margin, not extending onto printed area.
Rumsey 3353.084. Pedley, Mary Sponberg Belle et Utile: The Work of the Robert de Vaugondy Family of Mapmakers, 356.