Provincia Indigenis dicta La Provence divisa in omnes suos Vicariatus seu Praefecturas et Terras adjacentes eidem subjectas excudente Io. Baptista Homanno.
19 x 22.5 in (48.26 x 57.15 cm)
1 : 408000
This is a 1707 Johann Baptist Homann map of Provence, France, featuring outstanding original color. Published during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701 - 1714), this map was issued in the wake of the Siege of Toulon, a 1707 battle in the War of Spanish Succession (1701 - 1714).
A Closer LookEncompassing southeastern France and extreme northwestern Italy, the map depicts from Nimes east to Pinerolo (Pignerole) and from Viviers south to the Mediterranean. Marseille, Toulon, Nice, Saint Tropez, Arles, and Avignon appear. The Camargue, today famous for its wildlife (including wild horses and flamingoes), is identified near the left border. An inset in the lower right focuses on Toulon. Allied forces are illustrated throughout, bombarding Toulon and other French positions. The Allied navy appears at the mouth of the harbor, while the French fleet lies at anchor. The title cartouche in the bottom left features illustrations of European nobles receiving war spoils as Toulon burns. The bombardment of Toulon is illustrated in the lower right portion of the cartouche.
1707 Siege of ToulonThe 1707 siege of Toulon was fought during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701 - 1714) and took place between July 29, 1707, and August 21, 1707. A combined force of Austrian and Savoyard ground troops supported by a fleet of British and Dutch warships attacked Toulon, a French stronghold on the Mediterranean coast of France. The Allies hoped to capture the city and open France to attack from the south, circumventing France's stout northern defenses. French King Louis XIV ordered 46 French ships of the line scuttled in order to avoid the fleet's complete destruction. Upon reaching Toulon, the Allies were outnumbered and lacked sufficient men or artillery to mount a full siege. They successfully captured the Santa Catarina heights overlooking the city (illustrated in the inset and labeled (M. de S. Catharine) but were dislodged by the French four days later. In the end, the Allies were forced to retreat, with French forces threatening their rear and over 13,000 casualties (mostly caused by disease) depleting their strength. Before withdrawing, the British fleet bombarded Toulon for 18 hours, destroying the dockyards and naval stores necessary to repair the French fleet. While neither side officially won the battle, it was a decisive strategic defeat for the Allies, due to high casualties and a stalemate along France's well-fortified northern border. Nonetheless, the British did gain complete control of the western Mediterranean since the French lost their fleet, as the scuttled ships were not refloated until after the war.
Publication History and CensusThis map was published c. 1707 by Johann Baptist Homann for inclusion in his Neuer Atlas. The present example is from a 1710 edition of the Neuer Atlas. The separate map is well represented in institutional collections and cataloged in over one dozen entries in the OCLC.
Johann Baptist Homann (March 20, 1664 - July 1, 1724) was the most prominent and prolific map publisher of the 18th century. Homann was born in Oberkammlach, a small town near Kammlach, Bavaria, Germany. As a young man Homann studied in a Jesuit school and nursed ambitions of becoming a Dominican priest before converting to Protestantism in 1687. Following his conversion, Homann moved to Nuremberg and found employment as a notary. Around 1693, Homann briefly relocated to Vienna, where he lived and studied printing and copper plate engraving until 1695. Afterwards he returned to Nuremberg where, in 1702, he founded the commercial publishing firm that would bear his name. In the next five years Homann produced hundreds of maps and developed a distinctive style characterized by heavy detailed engraving, elaborate allegorical cartouche work, and vivid hand color. The Homann firm, due to the lower cost of printing in Germany, was able to undercut the dominant French and Dutch publishing houses while matching the diversity and quality of their output. By 1715 Homann's rising star caught the attention of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, who appointed him Imperial Cartographer. In the same year he was also appointed a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences in Berlin. Homann's prestigious title came with a number of important advantages including access to the most up to date cartographic information as well as the 'Privilege'. The Privilege was a type of early copyright offered to very few by the Holy Roman Emperor. Though not as sophisticated as modern copyright legislation, the Privilege did offer a kind of limited protection for several years. Most all J. B. Homann maps printed between 1715 and 1730 bear the inscription 'Cum Priviligio' or some variation. Following Homann's death in 1724, the management of the firm passed to his son, Johann Christoph Homann (1703 - 1730). J. C. Homann, perhaps realizing that he would not long survive his father, stipulated in his will that the company would be inherited by his two head managers, Johann Georg Ebersberger (1695 - 1760) and Johann Michael Franz (1700 - 1761), and that it would publish only under the name 'Homann Heirs'. This designation, in various forms (Homannsche Heirs, Heritiers de Homann, Lat Homannianos Herod, Homannschen Erben, etc..) appears on maps from about 1731 onwards. The firm continued to publish maps in ever diminishing quantities until the death of its last owner, Christoph Franz Fembo (1781 - 1848). More by this mapmaker...
Homann, J. B., Neuer Atlas, (Nuremberg) 1710.
Very good. Verso repair to centerfold separation. Printer's crease through title cartouche. Superb original color.
OCLC 552084546. Rumsey 12499.078 (1716 state).