Mouth of Columbia River.
1851 (dated) 18 x 27.5 in (45.72 x 69.85 cm)
1 : 40000
This is an attractive example of the U. S. Coast Survey's 1851 nautical chart or maritime map of the mouth of the Columbia River. The Columbia River, the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States forms the border between the states of Washington and Oregon. This map covers from Cape Disappointment or Hancock to Pt. Gray or Grays Point in the state of Washington and from Point Adams to Tongue Point in Oregon, and includes the township of Astoria. The map offers exceptional detail throughout and includes countless depth soundings. Along the lower border, sailing instructions, notes on tides and a wealth of other practical information for the mariner are included. The upper right quadrant includes a beautifully illustrated view of the entrance of Columbia River – Cape Hancock or Disappointment.
The hydrography for this chart was completed by a party under the command of W. P. McArthur and W. A. Bartlett. The entire chart was produced under the supervision of A. D. Bache, of the most prolific and influential Superintendents of the U.S. Coast Survey.
The Office of the Coast Survey, founded in 1807 by President Thomas Jefferson and Secretary of Commerce Albert Gallatin, is the oldest scientific organization in the U.S. Federal Government. Jefferson created the "Survey of the Coast," as it was then called, in response to a need for accurate navigational charts of the new nation's coasts and harbors. The spirit of the Coast Survey was defined by its first two superintendents. The first superintendent of the Coast Survey was Swiss immigrant and West Point mathematics professor Ferdinand Hassler. Under the direction of Hassler, from 1816 to 1843, the ideological and scientific foundations for the Coast Survey were established. These included using the most advanced techniques and most sophisticated equipment as well as an unstinting attention to detail. Hassler devised a labor intensive triangulation system whereby the entire coast was divided into a series of enormous triangles. These were in turn subdivided into smaller triangulation units that were then individually surveyed. Employing this exacting technique on such a massive scale had never before been attempted. Consequently, Hassler and the Coast Survey under him developed a reputation for uncompromising dedication to the principles of accuracy and excellence. Unfortunately, despite being a masterful surveyor, Hassler was abrasive and politically unpopular, twice losing congressional funding for the Coast Survey. Nonetheless, Hassler led the Coast Survey until his death in 1843, at which time Alexander Dallas Bache, a great-grandson of Benjamin Franklin, took the helm. Bache was fully dedicated to the principles established by Hassler, but proved more politically astute and successfully lobbied Congress to liberally fund the endeavor. Under the leadership of A. D. Bache, the Coast Survey completed its most important work. Moreover, during his long tenure with the Coast Survey, from 1843 to 1865, Bache was a steadfast advocate of American science and navigation and in fact founded the American Academy of Sciences. Bache was succeeded by Benjamin Pierce who ran the Survey from 1867 to 1874. Pierce was in turn succeeded by Carlile Pollock Patterson who was Superintendent from 1874 to 1881. In 1878, under Patterson's superintendence, the U.S. Coast Survey was reorganized as the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (C & GS) to accommodate topographic as well as nautical surveys. Today the Coast Survey is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or NOAA as the National Geodetic Survey.
Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, Washington, 1851.
Good. Some loss with verso reinforcement near center, close to Pt. Adams. Some wear and toning along original fold lines. Fold creases at places. Backed with archival tissue for stability.