Sanitary & Topographical Map of the City and Island of New York Prepared for the Council of Hygene & Public Health, of the Citizens' Association under the direciton of Egbert L. Viele, Topographical Engineer.
1865 (dated) 17.5 x 63 in (44.45 x 160.02 cm)
1 : 12000
This is Egbert L. Viele's 1865 topography and waterways map of Manhattan, one of the scarcest, most important, and most enduring maps of New York City ever published. Covering the entirety of Manhattan Island, Viele's map details the canals, swamps, rivers, ditches, ponds, meadows, and drainage basins of Manhattan as they existed prior to the city's urban development. A version of the Viele map remains in use today by architects and contractors who need to be certain they are not building over underground rivers and swamps that may destabilize a new construction's foundation.
Roughly translated 'Manhattan' is an American Indian term meaning 'Island of Hills'. The American Indians living in the region prior to the Dutch settlement of Manhattan treated the island as a huge hunting and fishing reserve full of trout streams, bass swamps, and sunfish ponds. Viele contended that as streets and buildings were constructed the city's natural drainage retreated underground where, stagnating, it led to a 'humid miasmic state of the atmosphere' conducive to yellow fever, malaria, plague, and other epidemic illnesses.
Viele dedicated nearly 20 years to researching and perfecting this masterpiece of cartography. The basic map and above ground topography of the Viele map is drawn from John Randel's surveys of 1807 and the Commissioner's Plan of 1811, which formally laid out New York City's grid system. Viele then used early survey work, new survey work, and studies of older maps to recreate Manhattan's water system as it must have existed when the first Dutch settlers built a fur trading post at the southern tip of the island. Viele presented an unfinished early state of his map, covering only lower Manhattan to the New York State Senate in 1859, claiming,
The Sanitary condition of any city or district or country is intimately connected with its proper drainage . . . that any inquiry into causes or remedies for sanitary evils . . . shall be based upon a thorough knowledge of the topography of the island.
It took another six years of meticulous study to produce the final product – this extraordinary achievement.
Though Viele may never have imaged his map's most important legacy would be as a construction aid, architects, engineers, and contractors were quick to grasp the usefulness of the map. Paul Starett, who built the Empire State Building and Stuyvesant Town, used this map to prepare estimates of construction costs. Melvin Febish, part of the team constructing the Citicorp Center, 'found that it is accurate within feet'.
This edition of Viele's 'Topographical Map of the City of New York' was issued to accompany his manifesto calling for future city development to take natural waterways and drainage into account when planning expansion. Haskell, in his cartobibliography of Manhattan maps, for some reason identifies this map as being issued in 1864, but no known example exists from that date, nor are there any recorded copyrights on this map from 1864. The first complete editions were issued in 1865. There were, it is noteworthy, several editions issued simultaneously in 1865, all of which might reasonably contend for the title of first. These include a pocket format version and a variant issued for Viele's book on sanitation, both of which were printed on banknote paper. There is also this edition, possibly the least common of the series, printed on heavier paper for the official presentation. Cartographically all three editions are identical, but all have slightly different titles. Engraved by Ferdinand Meyer Lithographers of 96 Fulton Street, New York.
Egbert Ludovicus Viele (June 17, 1825 - April 22, 1902) was an American civil engineer and cartographer active in New York City during the second half of the 19th century. Born in Saratoga County, Viele attended the United States Military Academy at West Point. Graduating in 1847, he was commissioned as a brevet second lieutenant in the 2nd United States Infantry. He served in the Mexican-American War before resigning form military duty to pursue a career as a Civil Engineer in New York City. When the call came to plan New York City's Central Park, Viele, like the ultimately victorious Vaux and Olmsted, submitted a plan. Though Viele's plan for Central Park did not win the design competition, it did bring him to the attention of the city council, who hired him as Engineer-in-chief of Central Park in 1856, and engineer of Prospect Park, Brooklyn in 1860. It was most likely during his tenure with the park commissions that Viele developed his theories connecting compromised natural drainage with sanitation and infectious disease. Viele's great cartographic masterpiece, the "Topographical Map of the City of New-York" evolved out of the notion that epidemic level disease evolved from excess moisture in the soil. He contended that, as New York City expanded northwards, paving over stream beds and leveling out natural drainage channels, the underground waterways would stagnate and lead to plague or worse. Though intended for the purpose of urban planning, the Viele Map's (as it came to be known) greatest legacy is as a construction tool. To this day, contractors, architects, and engineers consult the Viele plan to determine if unseen subterranean waterways need to be taken into account when preparing foundations. Viele died in April of 1902 and was buried in an elaborate Egyptian Revival tomb at West Point. Legend tells that Viele, paranoid that he would be buried alive, an unfortunate but surprisingly common problem in the 19th century, installed a buzzer inside his coffin that would allow him to ring the school's commanding officer should the need arise. Apparently it did not, though Viele lives today through is remarkable "Topographical Map of the City of New-York."
Viele, E. L, Topography and Hydrology of theCity of New-York, (Robert Craighead, New York) 1865.
Very good. Backed with linen.
Rumsey 3723.000. Augustyn, R. T. and Cohen, P. E., Manhattan in Maps, p. 136 - 139. Haskell, Daniel, Manhattan Maps, A Co-operative List, 1132. Stokes, I. N. P., The Iconography of Manhattan Island, 1498-1909, Compiled from Original Sources and Illustrated by Photo-Intaglio Reproductions of Important Maps, Plans, Views and Documents in Public and Private Collections, vol 3, p.777-778.