1865 Johnson Map of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Guiana
Johnson's Venezuela, New Granada, Ecuador, Peru & Bolivia, Chile & Guiana.
1865 (undated) 13.5 x 17 in (34.29 x 43.18 cm)
1 : 15206400
This is a very attractive example of Johnson and Ward's 1865 map of the northwestern part of South America. Includes Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, New Granada (Colombia), Venezuela, British Guiana, Surinam, French Guiana and Chile as well as adjacent portions of the Brazil, particularly the Amazon. It offers excellent detail both along the coast and inland, especially along navigable rivers. Numerous jungle waterfalls are noted. The Amazon region is unsurprisingly vague though a few river ways and missionary stations are noted. Inset maps along the left border detail Chile and Lima. An engraved view in the lower left quadrant shows the Juan Fernandez Islands. Another inset at right center shows Valparaiso.
As this map was being drawn this region was in the midst of political upheaval and civil war. Venezuela was in the midst of its bloody Federal War (1859-1863) in which a significant percentage of the population perished. Colombia was then under the Confederacion Granadina, a short-lived federal republic that consisted of modern day Colombia and Panama. The Confederacion, facing strong opposition from both liberal and conservative elements, dissolved in 1863 in the midst of the Colombian Civil War (1860 – 1862).
This map features the strapwork style border common to Johnson's atlas work from 1860 to 1863. Published by Johnson and Ward as plate no. 65 in the 1865 edition of Johnson's Family Atlas.
Alvin Jewett Johnson (September 23, 1827 - April 22, 1884) was a prolific American map publisher active from 1856 to the mid-1880s. Johnson was born into a poor family in Wallingford, Vermont where he received only a based public education. He is known to have worked as school teacher for several years before moving to Richmond, Virginia. Johnson got his first taste of the map business and a salesman and book canvasser for J. H. Colton and company. The earliest Johnson maps were published with D. Griffing Johnson (no clear relation) and date to the mid-1850s, however it was not until 1860 that the Johnson firm published its first significant work, the Johnson's New Illustrated (Steel Plate) Family Atlas. The publication of the Family Atlas followed a somewhat mysterious 1859 deal with the well-established but financially strapped J. H. Colton cartographic publishing firm. Although map historian Water Ristow speculates that Colton sold his copyrights to Johnson and his business partner, another Vermonter named Ross C. Browning (1832 - 1899), a more likely theory is that Johnson and Browning financially supported the Colton firm in exchange for the right to use Colton's existing copyrighted map plates. Regardless of which scenario actually occurred it is indisputable that the first Johnson atlas maps were mostly reissues of earlier Colton maps. Early on Johnson described his firm as the "Successors to J. H. Colton and Company". Johnson's business strategy involved transferring the original Colton steel plate engravings to cheaper lithographic stones, allowing his firm to produce more maps at a lower price point. In 1861, following the outbreak of the American Civil War the Johnson and Browning firm moved their office from Richmond, Virginia to New York City. Johnson and Browning published two editions of the Johnson Atlas in 1860 and 1861. Sometime in 1861 Browning's portion of the firm was purchased by Benjamin P. Ward, whose name subsequently replaced Browning's on the imprint. The 1863 issue of the Family Atlas was one of the most unusual, it being a compilation of older Johnson and Browning maps, updated 1862 Johnson and Ward map issues, and newer 1863 maps with a revised border design. The 1864 issue of the Family Atlas is the first true Johnson and Ward atlas. Johnson published one more edition of the atlas in partnership with Ward in 1865, after which Johnson seems to have bought out Ward's share the firm. The next issue of the Atlas, 1866, is the first purely "Johnson" atlas with all new map plates, updated imprints, and copyrights. The Family Atlas went through roughly 27 years of publication, from 1860 to 1887, outliving Johnson himself who died in 1884. Johnson maps from the Family Atlas are notable for their unique borders, of which there are four different designs, the "strapwork border" from 1860 to 1863, the "fretwork border" from 1863 to 1869 and the "spirograph border" in 1870 – 1882, and a more elaborate version of the same from 1880-1887. In addition to the Family Atlas Johnson issued numerous wall maps, pocket maps, and in the 1880s the Cyclopedia. Johnson maps are known for their size, accuracy, detail, and stunning, vivid hand coloring. Johnson maps, purely American in their style and execution, chronicle some of the most important and periods in American history including the Civil War, the Westward Expansion, and the Indian Wars. Today Johnson's maps, especially those of the American west, are highly sought after by map collectors and historians.
Johnson, A. J., Johnson's New Illustrated Family Atlas of The World with Physical Geography, and with Descriptions Geographical, Statistical, and Historic including The Latest Federal Census, A Geographical Index, and a Chronological History of the Civil War in America, 1865.
Very good. Overall toning and minor foxing.
Rumsey 2905.036 (1860 edition). Phillips (Atlases) 6140-54.