Pas kaart van de zee kusten van Virginia : tusschen C. Henry en t hooge land van Renselaars Hoek...
20.25 x 23 in (51.435 x 58.42 cm)
1 : 600000
A lovely example of Van Keulen's 1684 nautical chart or maritime map of Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay and the adjacent coastline and waterways. Although it does not map beyond the coastline, it nevertheless is one of the first charts to utilize the 1673 Hermann map as a source, making it one of the most up-to-date charts of the region at that time - and a vast improvement on the 1675 Roggeveen, specifically because Van Keulen's chartmaker, Vooght, relied on the English Hermann map rather than Hessel Gerritz's c. 1630 charting as did Roggeveen.
Contributions from an Unknown SourceVooght also introduced detail to this chart that derive from an unknown source, more recent than the Herrmann. It is one of the first maps to note the existence of Philadelphia (spelled Filadelfy on the chart.) There are numerous depth soundings, which naturally did not derive from the Hermann. The whole mapping of the Delaware also derives from a newer, unknown source - perhaps in this case relying more on contemporaneous Dutch sources, as that area had been a Dutch colony.
Useful Detail Throughout
Throughout the chart, shallows and rocky areas are noted: Rensselaer's Hook is accompanied with a simple coastal view. The chart is decorative as well, with an attractively rendered ship, two compass roses, rhumb lines and a beautifully engraved cartouche.
Publication History and CensusAlthough they are not dated, Van Keulen's charts can generally be assigned associated with years of publication based on typographical changes. First states of the charts from the fourth volume of Keulen's Zee-Fakkel lack page numbers; these are dated 1684. Second states, dated 1687, have a page number added to the lower left corner. The 1695 third state has page numbers in both lower corners: this corresponds to the present example. OCLC only reveals ten copies of this map in institutional collections, in various states. Several examples of the chart have appeared at auction and in dealer's catalogues over the past ten years, although most of these have proved to be of the 1695 edition of the chart or later.
Johannis Van Keulen (1654 – 1715) was a Dutch cartographer active in Amsterdam during the late 17th century. Keulen was the son of Lucas van Keulen. Keulen's firm, ‘In de Gekroonde Lootsman' (In the Crowned Pilot), was founded in 1678 and registered with the Amsterdam Bookseller's guild as 'Cross staff-maker and bookseller'. The cross-staff is a nautical instrument used to determine latitude. Two years later, in 1680, they obtained a patent from the States General of Holland and West Friesland to publish nautical charts and atlases. Together with his partner, the cartographer Claes Janz Vooght, Van Keulen published numerous atlases and nautical charts, including the Zee Atlas and Nieuwe Lichtende Zee-Fakkel. This later work, the Zee-Fakkel, often called the 'Secret Atlas' as it was restricted to pilots associated with the Dutch East India Company or VOC. The term, Zee-Fakkel translates to 'Sea Torch.' It was a massive five volume atlas containing more than 130 nautical charts. The Zee-Fakkel established the Van Keulen firm as the pre-eminent maker of Dutch sea charts in the late 17th and early 18th century. In 1714, one year before Johannis Van Keulen death, his son, Gerard van Keulen (1678 - 1726), took charge. Gerard continued to update and republish the Zee-Fakkel until his own death in 1726. The firm was later passed on to Gerard's son, Johannes II Van Keulen (1704 - 1755), who significantly updated the atlas, especially with regard to Asia. The final editions of the atlas were published by Gerard Hulst van Keulen (1733 - 1801), Joannes II's son. The final true Van Keulen edition of the Zee-Fakkel was published posthumously in 1803. It is noteworthy that though ostensibly controlled by the Van Keulen men, it was the Van Keulen widows who maintained and managed the firm in the periods following their husbands' deaths. After the death of Gerard Hulst Van Keulen's son, Johannes Hulst Van Keulen, ownership of the family plates and business fell into the hands of the Swart family who continued to publish until the company closed its doors 1885, ending cartographic legacy spanning nearly 207 years.
Claes Jansz Vooght (1638 – 1696) was a Dutch astronomer, mathematician, teacher, surveyor and cartographer active in Amsterdam during the 17th century. Vooght described himself as a 'surveyor and teacher of mathematics and the art of navigation' and published extensively on these subjects. His is known to have been a surveyor for the Council of Holland and co-authored several books with Rembrantsz Dirck van Nierop. Though little is known of Vooght's life, his most important cartographic work appeared in conjunction with the prominent Johannes Van Keulen firm, with whom he partnered in 1780. Vooght was responsible for creating and compiling most of the maps in Van Keulen's seminal Nieuwe Lichtende Zee-Fakkel, with many early editions bearing only his name.
Keulen, J. van, De Nieuwe Groote Lichtende Zee-Fakkel, Part IV (Amsterdam) 1687. Also in: Keulen, J. van, Zee-Atlas (Amsterdam) 1687.
Very good condition. Light, even toning; some mat burn to extreme edges. Printed on thick, double - ply paper. Fine hand color.
OCLC 22914031. Burden 588 state 3; Koeman ; Papenfuse and Coale, Atlas of Historical Maps of Maryland, p. 25; cf. On the Map, fig. 22.