Map Showing the Distribution of the Genus Juglans (the Walnuts) in North America. Exclusive of Mexico.
1884 (undated) 19 x 28 in (48.26 x 71.12 cm)
1 : 7000000
This is an 1884 Charles Sprague Sargent arboreal thematic map of North America. The map depicts the United States from Canada to Mexico and from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean. It was part of a portfolio entitled Sixteen Maps Accompanying Report on Forest Trees of North America, which accompanied the 1884 Department of the Interior Report on Forests of North America (Exclusive of Mexico), itself a part of the United States Census of 1880.
As title suggests, the purpose of this map is to illustrate the distribution of Genus Juglans, or walnut trees, throughout the United States. A legend along the left border explains that the two different colors present on the map relate to the different species of walnut trees indigenous to the region. Per the map, walnut trees are common in the eastern half of the United States, in the southwest, and coastal California. The coloring indicates that the second species of walnut tree is native to the Midwest, while the species I, as noted on the map, rings the range of species II, and is also present in the southwest and California.
Although created to illustrate the distribution of walnut trees, several other aspects of the geography of North America are also depicted. Myriad rivers are labeled, as well as all the contemporary states, which at the time included the Indian Territory and Dakota as well as the Alaska Territory. It is worth noting that the land that will become the panhandle of Oklahoma is labeled here as 'public lands'. State capitals and other major cities are labeled. Mountain ranges are depicted.
This map was prepared under the direction of Charles Sprague Sargent, drafted by Harry King, and compiled under the direction of Henry Gannett. The map is number five of the portfolio titled Sixteen Maps Accompanying Report on Forest Trees of North America, which accompanied the 1884 Department of the Interior Report on Forests of North America (Exclusive of Mexico), and was published by Julius Bien in New York.
Charles Sprague Sargent (1841-1927) was an American botanist who was the first director of Harvard's Arnold Arboretum, a post which he held for 54 years. Sargent graduated from Harvard College in 1862 with a degree in Biology and immediately joined the United States Army and served in Louisiana during the Civil War. Following his time in the army, Sargent spent three years touring the botanical gardens of Europe. Upon his return, he took it upon himself to care for the grounds of his family estate, Holm Lea in Brookline, Massachusetts. In 1872, Sargent was appointed as a professor of horticulture at the newly formed Bussey Institution and in 1873 was named Director of the Arnold Arboretum. The Arboretum slowing began to take shape in the years following his appointment, and, beginning in 1878, Sargent began working with the renowned landscape architect Frederick Law Olmstead on a path and roadway system. In 1880, Sargent's expertise was called upon by the Department of Forestry to conduct a census of the trees of the United States by region, which was published in 1884 as Report on the Forests of North America (exclusive of Mexico). Sargent was influential in the creation of both national forests and national parks over the course of his career. It is said that Sargent spent all his waking hours either working in the administration building that he had raised the funds to have built, or wandering the grounds of the Arboretum. His expertise was renowned, even his own staff considered him to be a 'one-man institution'. After Sargent's death in 1927, Massachusetts Governor Alvan T. Fuller planted a white spruce on the grounds of the Massachusetts State House in his memory, stating, 'Professor Sargent knew more about trees than any other living person. It would be hard to find anyone who did more to protect trees from the vandalism of those who do not appreciate the contribution that they make to the beauty and wealth of our nation.'
Henry Gannett (1846 – 1914) was an American geographer who is described as the 'Father of Government Mapmaking'. Gannet was among those lobbying to centralize all government mapmaking under one agency. Before the creation of the United States Geological Survey, individual mapmakers and agencies had to compete for money from Congress to fund projects. His first job with the USGS was geographer of the 1880 United States Census. The completion of the census in 1882 is considered the start of true topographical work in the United States and the birth of the quadrangle. Gannet served as chief geographer on two subsequent censuses, 1890 and 1900, and was one of the founding members of the National Geographic Society.
Julius (Julien) Bien (1826 - 1909) was an American lithographer and engraver based in New York City. Bien was born in Naumburg, Germany. He was educated at the Academy of Fine Arts in Cassell and at Stadel's Institute in Frankfurt. Following the suppression of the anti-autocratic German Revolutions of 1848, Bien, who participated in the pan-German movement, found himself out of favor in his home country and joined the mass German immigration to the United States. Around 1850 Bien established the New York Lithographing, Engraving & Printing Company in New York that focused on the emergent chromo-lithograph process - a method of printing color using lithographic plates. His work drew the attention of the U.S. Government Printing Office which contracted him to produce countless government maps and surveys, including the Pacific Railroad Surveys, the census, numerous coast surveys, and various maps relating to the American Civil War. Bien also issued several atlases both privately and in conjunction with a relation, Joseph Bien. At the height of his career Bien was elected president of the American Lithographers Association.
Sargent, C.S., Sixteen Maps Accompanying Report on Forest Trees of North America (New York: Bien) 1884.
Very good. Light soiling. Even overall toning. Small verso repairs along margin. Blank on verso.
Rumsey 2332.006. OCLC 431578516.