Mobile Bay, Alabama
1856 (dated) 38.5 x 29 in (97.79 x 73.66 cm)
This is an uncommon 1856 U.S. Coast Survey Chart or Map of Mobile Bay, Alabama. Covers from Grand Bay and the mouths of the Alabama and Apalachee Rivers south to Mobile Point, Dauphine Island, and the Sand Island Bank. Also extends westward into the Mississippi Sound to roughly 18 degrees west longitude from Washington D.C. Includes the city of Moblie, Alabama as well as excellent detail of the nearby river delta. Countless depth soundings throughout. Notes on tides, under sea dangers, and sailing instructions in the upper right quadrant.
The Triangulation for this survey was completed by E. M. Eakin and F. H. Gerdes. The topography is the work of W. E. Greenwell. The Hydrography was accomplished by a party under the command of B. F. Sands, J. Alden, and C.P. Patterson. The construction of this chart was supervised by A.D. Bache, one of the most important and influential early superintendents of the U.S. Coast Survey. Published in the 1856 edition of the Superintendent's Report.
The Office of the Coast Survey, founded in 1807 by President Thomas Jefferson and Secretary of Commerce Albert Gallatin, is the oldest scientific organization in the U.S. Federal Government. Jefferson created the "Survey of the Coast," as it was then called, in response to a need for accurate navigational charts of the new nation's coasts and harbors. The spirit of the Coast Survey was defined by its first two superintendents. The first superintendent of the Coast Survey was Swiss immigrant and West Point mathematics professor Ferdinand Hassler. Under the direction of Hassler, from 1816 to 1843, the ideological and scientific foundations for the Coast Survey were established. These included using the most advanced techniques and most sophisticated equipment as well as an unstinting attention to detail. Hassler devised a labor intensive triangulation system whereby the entire coast was divided into a series of enormous triangles. These were in turn subdivided into smaller triangulation units that were then individually surveyed. Employing this exacting technique on such a massive scale had never before been attempted. Consequently, Hassler and the Coast Survey under him developed a reputation for uncompromising dedication to the principles of accuracy and excellence. Unfortunately, despite being a masterful surveyor, Hassler was abrasive and politically unpopular, twice losing congressional funding for the Coast Survey. Nonetheless, Hassler led the Coast Survey until his death in 1843, at which time Alexander Dallas Bache, a great-grandson of Benjamin Franklin, took the helm. Bache was fully dedicated to the principles established by Hassler, but proved more politically astute and successfully lobbied Congress to liberally fund the endeavor. Under the leadership of A. D. Bache, the Coast Survey completed its most important work. Moreover, during his long tenure with the Coast Survey, from 1843 to 1865, Bache was a steadfast advocate of American science and navigation and in fact founded the American Academy of Sciences. Bache was succeeded by Benjamin Pierce who ran the Survey from 1867 to 1874. Pierce was in turn succeeded by Carlile Pollock Patterson who was Superintendent from 1874 to 1881. In 1878, under Patterson's superintendence, the U.S. Coast Survey was reorganized as the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (C & GS) to accommodate topographic as well as nautical surveys. Today the Coast Survey is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or NOAA as the National Geodetic Survey.
Ferdinand H. Gerdes was one of the most active members of the U.S. Coast Survey team. His most important work includes several surveys of New York Harbor as well as detailed surveys of Florida, the Gulf Coast, and up the Mississippi River. Like most of the members of the Coast Survey, Gerdes was strongly pro-Union and worked diligently during the Civil War to provide Union commanders accurate surveying and cartographic materials. Gerdes is known to have commanded the ‘Sachem' and, during the Civil War, was heavily engaged with Union efforts to map and ultimately control, the Mississippi River.
Report of the Superintendant of the U.S. Coast Survey, (1856 edition).
Good. Minor toning and repair work along original fold lines - see zoom. Blank on verso. Lower left margin narrow, but framable.
American Philosophical Society, Map Collection, 663: 1856: Un38mba Large.