Sketch A Showing the progress of the Survey in Section No. 1 from 1844 to 1861.
1861 (dated) 31 x 20 in (78.74 x 50.8 cm)
1 : 400000
This is an attractive example of the 1861 U. S. Coast Survey map or triangulation chart of the New England coastline. It covers the coast line from Greenwich Bay (Rhode Island) eastward past Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket, then north to Cape Cod, Boston Harbor, Cape Anne, Portsmouth (New Hampshire) and Portland and Casco Bay, Maine. It includes Boston City and Harbor, Salem, Provincetown, Cape Ann, Gloucester, Newburyport, Portsmouth and Portland, among other towns. A small inset in the lower right quadrant includes a sub-sketch showing the position of Davis' Shoal, discovered by the U.S. Coast Survey in 1846, while another inset features a sub-sketch showing the position of Phelps' bank and Asia Rip. Various triangulation points used in setting up the survey are shown. From a nautical perspective the map offers a wealth of information on shoals, current and light houses. This chart was prepared under the supervision of A. D. Bache, one of the most influential Superintendents in the history of the Coast Survey, and issued for the 1861 Superintendent's Report.
The Office of the Coast Survey, founded in 1807 by President Thomas Jefferson and Secretary of Commerce Albert Gallatin, is the oldest scientific organization in the U.S. Federal Government. Jefferson created the "Survey of the Coast," as it was then called, in response to a need for accurate navigational charts of the new nation's coasts and harbors. The spirit of the Coast Survey was defined by its first two superintendents. The first superintendent of the Coast Survey was Swiss immigrant and West Point mathematics professor Ferdinand Hassler. Under the direction of Hassler, from 1816 to 1843, the ideological and scientific foundations for the Coast Survey were established. These included using the most advanced techniques and most sophisticated equipment as well as an unstinting attention to detail. Hassler devised a labor intensive triangulation system whereby the entire coast was divided into a series of enormous triangles. These were in turn subdivided into smaller triangulation units that were then individually surveyed. Employing this exacting technique on such a massive scale had never before been attempted. Consequently, Hassler and the Coast Survey under him developed a reputation for uncompromising dedication to the principles of accuracy and excellence. Unfortunately, despite being a masterful surveyor, Hassler was abrasive and politically unpopular, twice losing congressional funding for the Coast Survey. Nonetheless, Hassler led the Coast Survey until his death in 1843, at which time Alexander Dallas Bache, a great-grandson of Benjamin Franklin, took the helm. Bache was fully dedicated to the principles established by Hassler, but proved more politically astute and successfully lobbied Congress to liberally fund the endeavor. Under the leadership of A. D. Bache, the Coast Survey completed its most important work. Moreover, during his long tenure with the Coast Survey, from 1843 to 1865, Bache was a steadfast advocate of American science and navigation and in fact founded the American Academy of Sciences. Bache was succeeded by Benjamin Pierce who ran the Survey from 1867 to 1874. Pierce was in turn succeeded by Carlile Pollock Patterson who was Superintendent from 1874 to 1881. In 1878, under Patterson's superintendence, the U.S. Coast Survey was reorganized as the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (C & GS) to accommodate topographic as well as nautical surveys. Today the Coast Survey is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or NOAA as the National Geodetic Survey.
Bache, A. D., Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, (Washington) 1862.
Good. Toning and wear on original fold lines - especially at fold intersections. Fully backed on archival tissue.