Novi Belgii Novaeque Angliae Nec Non Pennsylvaniae et Partis Virginiae Tabula multis in locis emendata.
1690 (undated) 19 x 22 in (48.26 x 55.88 cm)
1 : 2200000
A magnificent example of Justus Danckerts' 1690 Novi Belgii or map of New York, New England, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. Some call this the 'farm animal map' for its novel incorporation of farm animals, ranging from horses and cows to chicken and sheep, in its decoration – a propaganda embellishment unique to Danckerts' editions. It is considered the final map of the Jansson-Visscher Series, although there is some reason to cast doubt on this assumption. Some scholars suggest that this map was first produced in 1655, predating the Visscher map, while others, most notably Philip Burden, argue that it was most likely first issued in 1673 to capitalize on general interested associated with the Dutch recapture of New York in that same year. The failure of the Danckerts clan to date either their maps or atlases only contributes to this confusion.
Like most maps in the Jansson-Visscher Series, the basic cartography here dates to the Jansson map of 1651. It covers from the St. Lawrence River to the Mouth of the Chesapeake Bay and from the Susquehanna River to the Penobscot River, incorporating in the process most of New England, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware. This edition features a number of important updates and revisions over the Visscher maps. The Delaware River is now fully redrawn such that it correctly does not connect to the Hudson – a common misconception in early maps. Pennsylvania is at last properly named.
The dramatic view in the lower right quadrant is based upon a similar view printed on the Visscher Map. This view based upon a 1648 watercolor, now in Vienna's Albertina Museum, was painted by Augustin Herman (c. 1621 – 1686). The watercolor view was first adopted to print by Johannes Blaeu for presentation alongside Van der Donck's 1650 Remonstrance - essentially an appeal directly to the States General to intervene with the Dutch West India Company and force additional support for the New Amsterdam (New York) colony. The view was subsequently incorporated into Visscher's map of 1655. This map proved popular and the illustration became known, somewhat erroneously, as the 'Visscher View.'
The Van der Donck Remonstrance may account for the addition of farm animals to this is this state of the map. Despite the Dutch retaking of New York from the British, many colonists were fully disillusioned with the lack of support received form the Dutch West India Company. The Remonstrance was intended to appeal directly to the States General for intervention and support – most of which would have come in the form of additional colonists. This map, which fills the blank spaces with domestic animals was re-engraved as a propaganda device intended to make the region seem more appealing to potential settlers. This would argue strongly for a 1655 date making it contemporary with the remonstrance.
This present example corresponds to Burden's 3nd state, issued following the founding of Philadelphia. In the present example, Philadelphia is named, a distance scale has been added, and 'Pennsylvaniae et Partis' is here added to the cartouche. In addition, in accrodanced with the 3rd, c. 1690 state, this map adds Niew Castel alias Sandhoeck near Delaware Bay and Yermonton just north of Philadelphia. This map was issued in various Danckerts atlases, all of which were undated.
The Danckerts family (fl. 1628 - 1717) were a Dutch engraving and cartographic publishing firm active in Amsterdam during the latter half of the 17th and early 18th centuries. The firm was founded by Cornelis Dankerts II (1603-1656) and his brother Dancker Danckerts (1614-16?). Cornelius and Dancker published few maps, but did pass the business on to Cornelius' son Justus Danckerts (1635 - 1701) and grandsons Theodorus Danckerts (1663-1727) and Cornelius Danckerts III (1664-1717). The firm was most active in this period between 1680 and 1700 when a number of atlases and maps appeared bearing either the Justus Danckerts or Theodorus Danckerts imprint. At the time, it was in vogue in Amsterdam to leave maps undated, which makes Danckerts maps particularly difficult to ascribe. Similarly, there is a considerable corpus of maps signed as Cornelius Danckerts. When dated we can correctly attribute these to either Cornelius II or Cornelius III, though, typically, most are undated and consequently difficult to attach to the correct Danckerts family member. The Danckerts family is well known for its highly detailed and graphic engraving style. In addition to numerous atlas maps, they also produced a number of spectacular Dutch wall maps. In the early 18th century, the Danckerts map plates were purchased by R. and J. Ottens, who reprinted many of them under their own imprint. (Ref: Keuning, J., "Cornelis Danckerts and his "Niew Aerdsh Pleyn"", Imago Mundi, Vol. 12 (1955), pp. 136-139.)
Claes Jansz Visscher (1587 - 1652) established the Visscher family publishing firm, which were prominent Dutch map publishers for nearly a century. The Visscher cartographic story beings with Claes Jansz Visscher who established the firm in Amsterdam near the offices of Pieter van den Keer and Jadocus Hondius. Many hypothesize that Visscher may have been one of Hondius's pupils and, under examination, this seems logical. The first Visscher maps appear around 1620 and include numerous individual maps as well as an atlas compiled of maps by various cartographers including Visscher himself. Upon the death of Claes, the firm fell into the hands of his son Nicholas Visscher I, who received a privilege to publish from the States of Holland and West Friesland in 1677. The firm would in turn be passed on to his son, Nicholas Visscher II. Most of the maps bearing the Visscher imprint were produced by these two men. Many Visscher maps also bear the imprint Piscator (a Latinized version of Visscher) and often feature the image of an elderly fisherman. Upon the death of Nicholas Visscher II, the business was carried on by the widowed Elizabeth Visscher until it was eventually sold to Peter Schenk.
Good. Some expert reinforcement along centerfold.
Burden, P., The Mapping of North America II, no. 434, State 3. Augustyn, R. T., Cohen, P., Manhattan in Maps 1527 - 1995, p. 32-33. McCorkle, B. B, New England in Early Printed Maps 1513 - 1800, 680.2. Stokes, I. N. P., The Iconography of Manhattan Island, 1498-1909, vol. 1, pp. 148-151. Tooley, R.V., Mapping of America, p. 285, pl. 150.