Asia ex magna orbis terre. descriptione Gerardi Mercatoris desumpta studio et industria G. M. Iunioris.
14.75 x 18.25 in (37.465 x 46.355 cm)
1 : 25000000
This is Gerard Mercator's 1595 map of Asia, the second map of the continent to appear in an atlas. It presents Asia as it was understood at the beginning of the Dutch effort to extend power into the Spice Islands, and at the dawn of the effort to discover alternative routes to them that would bypass the Portuguese lock on the Asia trade. The map extends across the Pacific to include New Guinea, the Philippines, and part of North America. While the interior still contains place names and geographical features that would have been familiar to Strabo, Ptolemy and Marco Polo, the coastline of Asia is filled with contemporary detail. The coastline of the subcontinent shows access to the best Dutch cartography of the late 16th century. The map shows part of North America across the mythical 'Strait of Anian.' In addition to the place name Anian, America contains several other place names, notably Coronado's 'Quivira,' the hoped-for location of the legendary seven cities of gold. The southeast portion of the map includes Sumatra, a recognizable Malay Peninsula, and a reasonably well-informed treatment of the Philippines and the Spice Islands. Sri Lanka appears in its proper location and correct naming (Zeilam ins.) rather than the Ptolemaic Taprobana; a note assigns that name as the name for Sumatra known in antiquity. New Guinea appears in part, and in the lower right corner is a glimpse of 'Terrae Australis Pars': not, alas, an early glimpse of the modern continent of Australia, but the northern extent of the then-undiscovered and legendary terra Australis, or Antarctica. In the north, there is yet no note of Barentz's discoveries for the Dutch in and around Nova Zemla, and there is shown a portion of Mercator's Terrae Polaris: two of his four Arctic landmasses appear. Japan is shown in the early, 'kite' shaped form that appeared on Mercator's 1569 world map; Korea does not yet appear.
A Superb EngravingThe map's rich array of place names are elegantly and clearly engraved, predominantly in the Italic font whose use in maps Mercator had pioneered. The map is embellished with a beautiful strapwork cartouche, and a fine sailing ship appears ready to sail north between Asia and America (a feat which would not be achieved until the 18th century; at the time this map was printed the separation of the two continents had not yet been established as fact.)
Publication History and CensusThis map appeared first in 1595. Oddly, it continued to appear in Hondius editions of the Atlas, despite the elder Jodocus Hondius having engraved a thoroughly updated version of the map in 1606. Indeed, examples of this map were in print as late as 1633, three years after Hondius' replacement was, itself, replaced. The verso text of the present example conforms with the 1628 French edition, published by Jodocus' heir Henry. We see sixteen examples of the separate map listed in OCLC.
Gerard Mercator (March 5, 1512 - December 2, 1594) is a seminal figure in the history of cartography. Mercator was born near Antwerp as Gerard de Cremere in Rupelmonde. He studied Latin, mathematics, and religion in Rupelmonde before his Uncle, Gisbert, a priest, arranged for him to be sent to Hertogenbosch to study under the Brothers of the Common Life. There he was taught by the celebrated Dutch humanist Georgius Macropedius (Joris van Lanckvelt; April 1487 - July 1558). It was there that he changed him name, adapting the Latin term for 'Merchant', that is 'Mercator'. He went on to study at the University of Louvain. After some time, he left Louvain to travel extensively, but returned in 1534 to study mathematics under Gemma Frisius (1508 - 1555). He produced his first world map in 1538 - notable as being the first to represent North America stretching from the Arctic to the southern polar regions. This impressive work earned him the patronage of the Emperor Charles V, for whom along with Van der Heyden and Gemma Frisius, he constructed a terrestrial globe. He then produced an important 1541 globe - the first to offer rhumb lines. Despite growing fame and imperial patronage, Mercator was accused of heresy and in 1552. His accusations were partially due to his Protestant faith, and partly due to his travels, which aroused suspicion. After being released from prison with the support of the University of Louvain, he resumed his cartographic work. It was during this period that he became a close fried to English polymath John Dee (1527 - 1609), who arrived in Louvain in 1548, and with whom Mercator maintained a lifelong correspondence. In 1552, Mercator set himself up as a cartographer in Duisburg and began work on his revised edition of Ptolemy's Geographia. He also taught mathematics in Duisburg from 1559 to 1562. In 1564, he became the Court Cosmographer to Duke Wilhelm of Cleve. During this period, he began to perfect the novel projection for which he is best remembered. The 'Mercator Projection' was first used in 1569 for a massive world map on 18 sheets. On May 5, 1590 Mercator had a stroke which left him paralyzed on his left side. He slowly recovered but suffered frustration at his inability to continue making maps. By 1592, he recovered enough that he was able to work again but by that time he was loosing his vision. He had a second stroke near the end of 1593, after which he briefly lost speech. He recovered some power of speech before a third stroke marked his end. Following Mercator's death his descendants, particularly his youngest son Rumold (1541 - December 31, 1599) completed many of his maps and in 1595, published his Atlas. Nonetheless, lacking their father's drive and genius, the firm but languished under heavy competition from Abraham Ortelius. It was not until Mercator's plates were purchased and republished (Mercator / Hondius) by Henricus Hondius II (1597 - 1651) and Jan Jansson (1588 - 1664) that his position as the preeminent cartographer of the age was re-established. Learn More...
Jodocus Hondius (October, 14 1563 - February 12, 1612) was an important Dutch cartographer active in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. His common name, Jodocus Hondius is actually a Latinized version of his Dutch name, Joost de Hondt. He is also sometimes referred to as Jodocus Hondius the Elder to distinguish him from his sons. Hondius was a Flemish artist, engraver, and cartographer. He is best known for his early maps of the New World and Europe, for re-establishing the reputation of the work of Gerard Mercator, and for his portraits of Francis Drake. Hondius was born and raised in Ghent. In his early years he established himself as an engraver, instrument maker and globe maker. In 1584 he moved to London to escape religious difficulties in Flanders. During his stay in England, Hondius was instrumental in publicizing the work of Francis Drake, who had made a circumnavigation of the world in the late 1570s. In particular, in 1589 Hondius produced a now famous map of the cove of New Albion, where Drake briefly established a settlement on the west coast of North America. Hondius' map was based on journal and eyewitness accounts of the trip and has long fueled speculation about the precise location of Drake's landing, which has not yet been firmly established by historians. Hondius is also thought to be the artist of several well-known portraits of Drake that are now in the National Portrait Gallery in London. In 1593, Hondius returned to Amsterdam, where he remained until the end of his life. In 1604, he purchased the plates of Gerard Mercator's Atlas from Mercator's grandson. Mercator's work had languished in comparison to the rival atlas, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum by Ortelius. Hondius republished Mercator's work with 36 additional maps, including several which he himself produced. Despite the addition of his own contributions, Hondius recognizing the prestige of Mercator's name, gave Mercator full credit as the author of the work, listing himself as the publisher. Hondius' new edition of Mercator revived the great cartographer's reputation and was a great success, selling out after a year. Hondius later published a second edition, as well as a pocket version called the Atlas Minor. The maps have since become known as the "Mercator/Hondius series". Between 1605 and 1610 Hondius was employed by John Speed to engrave the plates for Speed's The Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine. Following Hondius' death in 1612, his publishing work in Amsterdam was continued by his widow and two sons, Jodocus II and Henricus. Later his family formed a partnership with Jan Jansson, whose name appears on the Atlasas co-publisher after 1633. Eventually, starting with the first 1606 edition in Latin, about 50 editions of the Atlas were released in the main European languages. In the Islamic world, the atlas was partially translated by the Turkish scholar Katip Çelebi. The series is sometimes called the 'Mercator/Hondius/Jansson' series because of Jansson's later contributions. Hondius' is also credited with a number of important cartographic innovations including the introduction of decorative map borders and contributions to the evolution of 17th century Dutch wall maps. The work of Hondius was essential to the establishment Amsterdam as the center of cartography in Europe in the 17th century. Learn More...
Hondius, H., Atlas, editio decima. (Amsterdam: Hondius) 1628.
Mercator's Atlas is one of the most important works in the history of cartography. Although in fact Ortelius was the first to publish a proper atlas, the Teatrum Orbis Terrarum, Mercator's Atlas the first book to employ the term Atlas for a collection of maps. The term is derived both from the mythical titan, Atlas, who was forced to bear the world upon his shoulders, and the Libyan king, philosopher, and astronomer of the same name that, so the legend goes, constructed the first globe. Mercator dedicated the final 25 years of his life to compile the Atlas. He published two parts during his lifetime in 1585 and 1589, but the final part published posthumously by his son Rumold Mercator, in 1595. The map plates for the Atlas were later acquired by Jodocus Hondius who published the most complete and well known edition in 1606. It was Jodocus who popularized the Atlas and who did the most to elevate Gerard Mercator's work.
Excellent condition, with wide margins and a bold strike. Original color, refreshed.
OCLC 36746150 (Latin) Rumsey 10501.055.