This is a 1901 U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey nautical chart or maritime map of Port Royal Sound in South Carolina. An estuary of several rivers, the map depicts the region from Daufuskie Island to Pritchards Island and from Beaufort, South Carolina to the Atlantic Ocean. The region's many rivers, inlets, and sounds are illustrated in detail with myriad depth soundings indicated as a navigational aid. Some of these rivers include the Colleton River, the Chechessee River, the Beaufort River, the Story River, and the Broad River. Creeks, inlets, and sounds are also labeled and include soundings as well. Numerous islands, such as Bulls Island, Hilton's Head Island, Daw Island, Lemon Island, St. Helena Island, St. Phillips Island, Caper's Island, and Paris (Parris) Island are labeled. Parris Island is where the Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island is located. A table bearing information about lights is situated in the upper right corner, while information concerning tides, soundings, buoys, and storm warning displays is included in the lower left corner.
This map was created and produced by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey under the direction of Otto Hilgard Tittmann, who was a very highly regarded geodesist. It was engraved by Julius Bien and Company of New York.
The Office of the Coast Survey (1807 - present) founded in 1807 by President Thomas Jefferson and Secretary of Commerce Albert Gallatin, is the oldest scientific organization in the U.S. Federal Government. Jefferson created the "Survey of the Coast," as it was then called, in response to a need for accurate navigational charts of the new nation's coasts and harbors. The spirit of the Coast Survey was defined by its first two superintendents. The first superintendent of the Coast Survey was Swiss immigrant and West Point mathematics professor Ferdinand Hassler. Under the direction of Hassler, from 1816 to 1843, the ideological and scientific foundations for the Coast Survey were established. These included using the most advanced techniques and most sophisticated equipment as well as an unstinting attention to detail. Hassler devised a labor intensive triangulation system whereby the entire coast was divided into a series of enormous triangles. These were in turn subdivided into smaller triangulation units that were then individually surveyed. Employing this exacting technique on such a massive scale had never before been attempted. Consequently, Hassler and the Coast Survey under him developed a reputation for uncompromising dedication to the principles of accuracy and excellence. Unfortunately, despite being a masterful surveyor, Hassler was abrasive and politically unpopular, twice losing congressional funding for the Coast Survey. Nonetheless, Hassler led the Coast Survey until his death in 1843, at which time Alexander Dallas Bache, a great-grandson of Benjamin Franklin, took the helm. Bache was fully dedicated to the principles established by Hassler, but proved more politically astute and successfully lobbied Congress to liberally fund the endeavor. Under the leadership of A. D. Bache, the Coast Survey completed its most important work. Moreover, during his long tenure with the Coast Survey, from 1843 to 1865, Bache was a steadfast advocate of American science and navigation and in fact founded the American Academy of Sciences. Bache was succeeded by Benjamin Pierce who ran the Survey from 1867 to 1874. Pierce was in turn succeeded by Carlile Pollock Patterson who was Superintendent from 1874 to 1881. In 1878, under Patterson's superintendence, the U.S. Coast Survey was reorganized as the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (C & GS) to accommodate topographic as well as nautical surveys. Today the Coast Survey is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or NOAA as the National Geodetic Survey.
Otto Hilgard Tittmann (August 20, 1850 - August 21, 1938) was a German-American geodesist, geographer, and astronomer. Born in Belleville, Illinois, Tittmann attended school in St. Louis before joining the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey on November 10, 1867, and would remain with the U.S.C.G.S until his resignation 48 years later. Between 1889 and 1893, Dr. Tittmann was in charge of the Office of Standard Weights and Measures, which was, at this time in American history, part of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, and would remain so until the establishment of the National Bureau of Standards. During his time in charge of Weights and Measures, Tittman was sent to Paris to bring to the United States the national standard meter and to study weights and measures offices in Paris, London, and Berlin. Tittmann was named Assistant Superintendent of the Coast and Geodetic Survey on April 18, 1899 and was elevated to the post of Superintendent on December 1 1900, which he held until he resigned the post on April 15, 1915. Tittman, a co-founder of the National Geographic Society, served as the Society's President from 1915 until 1919. He was also a member of the Philosophical Society of Washington, the American Philosophical Society, the Washington Academy of Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Scient, the American Meteorological Society, the American Society of Civil Engineers, and the Cosmos Club. Dr. Tittman was a respected geodesist and renowned as one of the best in the country.
Julius (Julien) Bien (September 27, 1826 - December 21, 1909) was a German-Jewish lithographer and engraver based in New York City. Bien was born in Naumburg, Germany. He was educated at the Academy of Fine Arts, Cassell and at Städel's Institute, Frankfurt-am-Main. Following the suppression of the anti-autocratic German Revolutions of 1848, Bien, who participated in the pan-German movement, found himself out of favor in his home country and joined the mass German immigration to the United States. Bien can be found in New York as early as 1849. He established the New York Lithographing, Engraving & Printing Company in New York that focused on the emergent chromo-lithograph process - a method of printing color using lithographic plates. His work drew the attention of the U.S. Government Printing Office which contracted him to produce countless government maps and surveys, including the Pacific Railroad Surveys, the census, numerous coast surveys, and various maps relating to the American Civil War. Bien also issued several atlases both privately and in conjunction with a relation, Joseph Bien. At the height of his career Bien was elected president of the American Lithographers Association. After his death in 1909, Bien's firm was taken over by his son who promptly ran it into insolvency. The firm was sold to Sheldon Franklin, who, as part of the deal, retained the right to publish under the Julius Bien imprint. In addition to his work as a printer, Bien was active in the New York German Jewish community. He was director of the New York Hebrew Technical Institute, the New York Hebrew Orphan Asylum, and president of the B'nai B'rith Order.
Very good. Backed on archival tissue for stability. Light soiling. Blank on verso.